Δευτέρα, 17 Ιουνίου 2019

Pediatrics

The effect of follow-up after a negative double-blinded placebo-controlled cow's milk challenge on successful reintroduction

Abstract

Cow's milk allergy is a common food allergy in children with an incidence of 1–3%. The gold standard to diagnose cow's milk allergy is a double-blinded placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Previous studies show that reintroduction of cow's milk is unsuccessful in 10–12% of patients. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the effect of follow-up on the reintroduction of cow's milk. We analyzed the data of patients with a negative DBPCFC for cow's milk between 2014 and 2016 in three different departments. Questionnaires were used to compare the three ways of follow-up (no follow-up, follow-up in person or by telephone). Of the 336 children with a negative DBPCFC for cow's milk, 128 questionnaires (41%) were returned. Reintroduction of cow's milk was unsuccessful in 13.3% of the patients. There was no significant difference found between children with (73.8%) or without (26.2%) follow-up, or between follow-up by phone or personally. Whether this finding is caused by small numbers within this retrospective study should be investigated in future prospective studies.

Conclusion: Follow-up does not influence the reintroduction success rate of cow's milk after a negative double-blinded placebo-controlled food challenge.

What is Known:
Diagnosis of cow's milk allergy by double-blinded placebo-controlled food challenge is the gold standard.
• After a negative double-blinded placebo-controlled food challenge, reintroduction of cow's milk in the child's diet is unsuccessful in 10–12% of the children.
• Recurrence of symptoms, aversion to the examined food, and fear are seen as the main reasons for unsuccessful introduction.
What is New:
• Reintroduction after a negative double-blinded placebo-controlled food challenge is not influenced by different ways of follow-up.



Laryngoscope burn risk in neonatal intubation

Abstract

Laryngoscope burns in neonatal intubation

Following burns during neonatal intubation, we mounted an in vitro study of laryngoscopes to determine the temperatures reached during clinical use. The temperature of 10 different bulb laryngoscopes heads and two fibre optic heads were measured with a thermocouple, once opened, and upon closing. Within 60 s, all ten laryngoscopes, with light-bulb sources, had gained significant heat to cause thermal injury to neonatal skin. Laryngoscopes with LED light source and fibre optic heads did not.

Conclusion: We recommend that the bulb laryngoscope blade, if used, is not left open prior to intubation and that it is closed between intubation attempts.

What is Known:
• The preterm epidermis is particularly vulnerable to injury.
What is New:
• Bulb laryngoscope light bulbs consistently reach temperatures sufficient to burn neonatal skin in less than 100 s in an in vitro study.
• Bulb light safety advice should be incorporated into intubation guidelines.



Comparative evaluation of Airtraq™ and GlideScope® videolaryngoscopes for difficult pediatric intubation in a Pierre Robin manikin

Abstract

Airway management in children is associated with anatomical and physiological challenges compared with adults. Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is a condition characterized by micrognathia, glossoptosis, and cleft palate and related to a difficult airway. Both the Airtraq™ and GlideScope® have never been previously directly compared in PRS. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of these two airway devices in a PRS manikin for ethical and practical reasons. Between April and July 2017, 26, pediatric intensive care clinical fellows or trainees from a tertiary pediatric center were recruited to participate. In this prospective and randomized crossover trial, all participants first set up the Airtraq™ and the GlideScope® and then used these videolaryngoscopes to intubate an AirSim® PRS manikin. Our primary outcome measure was the duration of the successful intubation attempt. Duration of the successful intubation attempt was 18.1 (14.2–34.9 [10.2–51.3]) s for the Airtraq™ compared to 31.1 (18.7–55.6 [6.2–119]) s for the GlideScope® (p = 0.045). Setup time was 50.0 ± 6.9 s for the Airtraq™ and 27.8 ± 8.6 s for the GlideScope® (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Even though setup time was longer, the characteristics of intubation performance were superior with the Airtraq™ relative to the GlideScope® in an AirSim® PRS manikin.

What is Known:
• Several case reports have described the successful use of Airtraq™ to intubate children with Pierre Robin sequence.
• The GlideScope® has demonstrated similar rates of first-attempt successful intubation to flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy in a Pierre Robin sequence manikin.
What is New:
• In the hands of pediatric non-airway specialists, the characteristics of intubation performance, including the duration of the successful intubation attempt, are superior with the Airtraq™ compared with the GlideScope® in a Pierre Robin sequence manikin.
• Setup time for the Airtraq™ is, however, longer relative to that for the GlideScope®.



Developmental and behavioral problems in preschool-aged primary ciliary dyskinesia patients

Abstract

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) causes a broad spectrum of disease. This study aims to explore the developmental, behavioral, and social-emotional aspects of preschool-aged children with PCD. Fourteen PCD, 17 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and 15 healthy subjects were enrolled. Developmental features of the participants were evaluated with Ages and Stages Questionnaire. Parents of participants filled out the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The number of children screened positive for developmental delay was statistically higher in the PCD group. Higher numbers of children with PCD were screened positive for developmental delay in communication and problem-solving domains. Delay in fine motor skill domain was more common in children with PCD and CF compared to healthy subjects. There was no difference among the three groups in terms of gross motor and personal-social development. None of the children in all three groups was shown to have social-emotional problems. In CBCL, patients with CF had higher internalizing problem scores. Externalizing and total problem scores did not differ between the three groups. However, among PCD patients, children with developmental delay on more than one domain had higher externalizing and total problem scores.

Conclusion: The current study revealed that positive screening for developmental delay is more common in preschool-aged PCD patients compared to patients with CF and healthy children.

What is Known:
• Intelligence scores of school-aged PCD patients are similar to healthy subjects despite their higher internalizing problem scores on Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL).
• School-aged PCD patients exhibit higher hyperactivity and inattention findings.
What is New:
• Positive screening for developmental delay in communication, problem-solving and fine motor skills is more common in preschool-aged PCD patients.
• Preschool-aged PCD patients screened positive for developmental delay in more than one domain have higher externalizing and total problem scores on CBCL.



Maternal phenylketonuria in Turkey: outcomes of 71 pregnancies and issues in management

Abstract

Untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) in pregnancy causes a severe embryopathy called maternal PKU syndrome. Here, we aimed to assess management issues and pregnancy outcomes in the first published series of PKU pregnancies from the developing world. Data were collected retrospectively in a single center from 71 pregnancies and 45 live births of 32 women with PKU, 11 of whom were diagnosed in adulthood after having an affected child. Microcephaly, intellectual disability, and dysmorphic facies were more prevalent in offspring of untreated than treated pregnancies with classical PKU (100% vs. 0%, 91% vs. 0%, and 73% vs. 23% with p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.037, respectively). In treated pregnancies, phenylalanine levels were higher during weeks 6–14 than other periods of gestation (4.38 vs. 3.93, 2.00 and 2.28 mg/dl; p < 0.05). Poor compliance correlated with higher phenylalanine levels (ρ = − 0.64, p = 0.019) and fluctuations (ρ = − 0.66, p = 0.014).

Conclusion: More frequent phenylalanine measurements during late first trimester are crucial to improve outcomes in treated pregnancies. In order to prevent untreated pregnancies via detecting undiagnosed adults, countries where significantly many women of childbearing age were not screened as newborns may consider pre-pregnancy PKU screening. Microcephaly in the newborn should prompt screening for PKU in the mother.

What Is Known
Untreated phenylketonuria during pregnancy causes maternal phenylketonuria syndrome in the newborn.
•Effective treatment throughout pregnancy can prevent adverse fetal outcomes.
What Is New:
Metabolic control is related to frequency of follow-up and worsens during late first trimester. Closer follow-up during this period may improve metabolic control.
•In order to prevent untreated pregnanciespre-pregnancy phenylketonuria screening may be considered if many women of childbearing age were not screened as newborns.



Prediction of prolonged ventilator dependence in preterm infants

Abstract

Volutrauma is an important factor in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Our aims were to identify risk factors in the first 24 h for prolonged ventilator dependence and assess volume delivery and carbon dioxide levels in infants with evolving BPD. A retrospective study was undertaken of 41 infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestational age (GA). A higher tidal volume, minute volume and resistance and a lower GA, birth weight and compliance were associated with a significantly higher risk of ventilator dependence at 28 days. The strongest relationships were with birth weight (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUROC = 0.771) and GA (AUROC = 0.813). Tidal volume remained significantly higher after adjusting for GA in those who remained ventilator dependent at 28 days. The 18 who remained ventilator dependent at 28 days had increased mean carbon dioxide (PCO2) levels with increasing age from a mean of 41 mmHg in the first 24 h to 65 mmHg at 28 days PMA (p < 0.001). The increase in PCO2 occurred despite increases in peak inflation pressures (p < 0.001), tidal volumes (p = 0.002) and minute volumes (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: These results suggest that initial volutrauma may contribute to the development of chronic ventilator dependence.

What is Known:
 In prematurely born infants, excessive tidal volumes are important in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), but a tidal volume that is too low will increase the risk of atelectasis, work of breathing and energy expenditure.
What is New:
 A high tidal volume in the first 24 h was associated with an increased risk of ventilator dependence at 28 days, which remained significant after adjusting for gestational age. Carbon dioxide levels significantly increased over the first month despite increased pressures and volumes in those who remained ventilator dependent.



Care for children with severe chronic skin diseases

Abstract

In this study, the care for children with a severe chronic skin disease in our national expert center of pediatric dermatology was evaluated. Patients and their parents were questioned by using existing questionnaires: 50 pediatric patients completed the modified "my positive health" questionnaire of Huber and 51 parents completed Pelentsov parental needs scale. Nineteen involved professionals answered a questionnaire with open boxes. Parents of children with a variety of chronic skin diseases and young adult patients were interviewed to find out what an optimal approach would look like according to them. Children with a severe chronic and/or congenital skin disorder score high on the "my positive health" questionnaire, indicating they are able to adapt and self-manage. Their highest median score was measured for the dimension "quality of life." Their parents expect improvement of "working with health care professionals," more specifically they want them to adopt a more holistic approach throughout the patient's life. Structured interviews showed they expect that a multidisciplinary team of care providers determine together with the patient and its family—in advance—which care is needed, at what time and by whom. The interviewed professionals indicated adoption of a holistic multidisciplinary approach as the single largest improvement to achieve better care.

Conclusion: Although these children with a severe chronic and/or congenital skin disease were able to adapt and self-manage, they need a more personalized integrative multidisciplinary and systematic transmural approach covering all aspects of life during their lifetime.

What is Known:
• Severe skin disorders affect the child and its family in several ways. In our expert center, we try to optimize the care for these children through a multidisciplinary approach.
What is New:
• To our knowledge, no English publication describes the requirements for good care for pediatric patients with severe chronic skin disorders and how to optimize this care. We evaluated the health status of children with severe chronic skin disorders and the strengths and weaknesses of past and current care by questioning these children, their parents, adult patients, and involved professionals.



The triglycerides and glucose index is associated with elevated blood pressure in apparently healthy children and adolescents

Abstract

Prevalence of elevated blood pressure in pediatric population has been increasing worldwide. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine whether the triglycerides and glucose (TyG) index is associated with the presence of prehypertension or hypertension in children and adolescents. Apparently healthy children aged 6 to 15 years were enrolled in a population-based cross-sectional study. Participants were allocated into groups with normal blood pressure (NBP), prehypertension, and hypertension. Smoking, alcohol intake, pregnancy, previous diagnosis of diabetes, kidney, hepatic, or endocrine diseases were exclusion criteria. NBP was defined by systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure < 90th percentile, prehypertension by systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90th < 95th percentile, and hypertension by systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 95th percentile, according to age, sex, and height percentiles. A total of 3589 children were enrolled, 1748 (49%) girls and 1841 (51%) boys, and allocated into groups with NBP (n = 2874), prehypertension (n = 271), and hypertension (n = 444). The multiple logistic regression analysis stratified by age and adjusted by the Z-score/SDS of body mass index and waist circumference showed that elevated TyG index was significantly associated with prehypertension (OR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.08–2.05) and hypertension (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.26–2.11).

Conclusion: The results of the present study shows that the elevated TyG index is significantly associated with the presence of prehypertension and hypertension in children and adolescents.

What is Known:
• Prevalence of elevated blood pressure in children and adolescents has been increasing worldwide.
• Insulin resistance plays a key role in the pathogenesis of hypertension.
What is New:
• The elevated TyG index is significantly associated with the presence of prehypertension in children aged 6–9 years and adolescents aged 10–15 years.
• The elevated TyG index is significantly associated with the presence of hypertension in children aged 6–9 years and adolescents aged 10–15 years.



Comparison of cranial ultrasound and MRI for detecting BRAIN injury in extremely preterm infants and correlation with neurological outcomes at 1 and 3 years

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the accuracy of different grades of brain injuries on serial and term equivalent age (TEA)-cranial ultrasound imaging (cUS) as compared to TEA magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in extremely preterm infants < 28 weeks, and determine the predictive value of imaging abnormalities on neurodevelopmental outcome at 1 and 3 years. Seventy-five infants were included in the study. Severe TEA-cUS injury had high positive predictive value-PPV (100%) for predicting severe MRI injury compared to mild to moderate TEA-cUS injury or severe injury on worst cranial ultrasound scan. Absence of moderate to severe injury on TEA cUS or worst serial cUS was a good predictor of a normal MRI (negative predictive values > 93%). Severe grade 3 injuries on TEA-US had high predictive values in predicting abnormal neurodevelopment at both 1 and 3 years of age (PPV 100%). All grades of MRI and worst serial cUS injuries poorly predicted abnormal neurodevelopment at 1 and 3 years. Absence of an injury either on a cranial ultrasound or an MRI did not predict a normal outcome. Multiple logistic regression did not show a significant correlation between imaging injury and neurodevelopmental outcomes.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that TEA cUS can reliably identify severe brain abnormalities that would be seen on MRI imaging and positively predict abnormal neurodevelopment at both 1 and 3 years. Although MRI can pick up more subtle abnormalities that may be missed on cUS, their predictive value on neurodevelopmental impairment is poor. Normal cUS and MRI scan may not exclude abnormal neurodevelopment. Routine TEA-MRI scan provides limited benefit in predicting abnormal neurodevelopment in extremely preterm infants.

What is Known:
• Preterm neonates are at increased risk of white matter and other brain injuries, which may be associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome.
• MRI is the most accurate method in detecting white matter injuries.
What is New:
• TEA-cUS can reliably detect severe brain injuries on MRI, but not mild/moderate lesions as well as abnormal neurodevelopment at 1 and 3 years.
• TEA-MRI brain injury is poor in predicting abnormal neurodevelopment at 1 and 3 years and normal cUS or MRI brain injury may not guarantee normal neurodevelopment.



Accelerometer-based physical activity levels, fundamental movement skills and weight status in British preschool children from a deprived area

Abstract

Preschool children are recommended to participate in a minimum of 180-min physical activity (PA) per day to enhance their development and overall health. Low PA and increased obesity are thought to be linked to low mastery of fundamental movement skills (FMS) in preschool children. This study sought to investigate whether FMS influences PA levels and weight status in preschool children, in an area of low socioeconomic status. Secondary aims of this study were to determine whether gender or day of the week affected the primary outcomes. One hundred eighty-five preschool children aged 3–4 years old, participated in the study. FMS proficiency was determined using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. PA was determined using triaxial accelerometry over a 4-day period. None of the samples met the recommended 180 min of PA. There were no significant differences in PA or weight status between preschool children with high, medium or low FMS mastery (P < 0.05). There were also no significant correlations between overall FMS and moderate to vigorous PA during the week or weekend days.

Conclusion: Girls scored significantly greater at the hop, leap, and skip (locomotor skills) and the boys significantly higher at the kick (object control) (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in PA or weight status between preschool children with high, medium, or low FMS mastery, possibly because FMS mastery had not developed to a high enough level to affect PA and FMS are considered independent of physical fitness and physical features, such as weight and height.

What is Known:
FMS are commonly developed in early childhood, providing the building blocks for future motor skills, good health and lifelong PA.
No study to date has measured FMS, PA levels and weight status in preschool children, to determine whether FMS competency influences PA levels and weight status in preschool children, in an area of low SES.
What is New:
FMS competency did not appear to influence the level of PA or weight status in this sample of UK preschool children from a low SES area.
PA and FMS may not be fully established and consequently not strongly linked at the ages of 3–4 years, therefore, the preschool years could be influential in providing a window to maximise input of good/optimal development of motor competence before the proficiency barrier sets in and we need remedial intervention.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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