Πέμπτη, 20 Ιουνίου 2019

Public Health Dentistry

Presidents message
V Gopikrishna

Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry 2019 17(2):87-87



Honorary secretary's message
Sabyasachi Saha

Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry 2019 17(2):88-88



From the editor's desk
KR Sowmya

Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry 2019 17(2):89-89



Role of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of oral malodor/halitosis: A systematic review
Pragati Ishwar Shringeri, Nusrath Fareed, Hemant Battur, Sanjeev Khanagar

Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry 2019 17(2):90-96

Oral malodor is a condition which impedes people's social life and self-esteem. With more widespread acceptance of the potential for probiotic intervention providing health benefits for nonintestinal body sites, application of it on alternative target tissues has increased, to obtain more specific and enduring benefits. From the periodontal perspective, several studies have revealed the role of probiotic in the reduction of gingival inflammation. However, the studies of stronger evidence pertaining to the role of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of halitosis is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the role of probiotic strains in the treatment and prevention of oral malodor. Records were searched from various databases such as PubMed/Medline, Cochrane, and EMBASE. Articles published over the past 11 years were identified using the key search terms. A total of 178 records were identified by title/abstracts/full-text articles and were retrieved. After thorough assessment, 11 manuscripts were included in qualitative synthesis in this systematic review. Analysis of studies revealed 666 participants, aged 4–76 years, and about 20 probiotic strains were assigned to the test groups and control groups with a varying follow-up period. The effect size for randomized control trials ranged from 0.08 to 0.7 which suggests low-to-moderate practical significance. The results of this systematic review confirm that more studies are necessary to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics with correct methodological design, in broader population samples, and over longer periods. 


Oral health knowledge and practices: their influence on oral health status of auxiliary health workers in health centers of Mangalore, India
Mallikarjun Sajjanshetty, Ashwini Rao, Rajesh Gururaghavendran, Ramya Shenoy, BH Mithun Pai

Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry 2019 17(2):97-102

Background: Disparity exists in the availability of dental care services in rural India as compared to urban setup. Majority of dental offices are set in urban areas, with little access to rural population, driving people to primary health centers for all health needs. In situations like these, auxiliary health workers can be delegated with the duties of oral health education to the masses provided they possess adequate information/knowledge regarding oral healthcare and practices. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the influence of oral health knowledge (OHK) and oral health practices on the oral health status among auxiliary health workers in the health centers of Mangalore. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among the auxiliary health workers in Mangalore. OHK and practices were analyzed using a pretested, screening questionnaire. Oral health status was analyzed using the WHO Oral Health Assessment Form-1997. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software, version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Chi-square test and binary logistic regression test were employed. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Majority (72.8%) of the auxiliary workers had good OHK and followed recommended dental practices. Better OHK was associated with better oral health, namely lesser decayed teeth and more filled teeth (P < 0.05). Better OHK correlated negatively with missing teeth among participants (P < 0.05). Visiting a dentist in previous 6 months, brushing twice a day, and changing brush every 3 months were the important predictors of improved oral health (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Better OHK and practices can significantly impact the oral health status of auxiliary health workers in Mangalore. It also projects the impact that it can have on the oral health of rural population as auxiliary health workers are the first line of information for the underprivileged masses. Dedicated oral health programs to educate/train auxiliary workers in health centers can form an alternative approach to reach rural population. 


Assessment of oral mucosal condition and periodontal status of the institutionalized elderly living in geriatric homes of Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka, India
R Pandya Sajankumar, Vijaya Hegde

Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry 2019 17(2):103-107

Background: It is recognized that in developing countries like India, institutionalized health care is expensive. Thus, individual residing in geriatric homes have a higher rate of oral disease. To promote the oral health of the elderly, we need to know the oral mucosal condition and periodontal status. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the oral mucosal conditions and periodontal status of the institutionalized elderly living in geriatric homes. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in geriatric homes of Dakshina Kannada district. The sample size was estimated to be 384. The WHO oral health assessment pro forma (1997) was used to collect the data. The American Dental Association Type III examination method was used. The data obtained was coded and fed into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (Chicago, IL, USA) version 16.0 for analysis. Differences in proportions were compared using the Chi-squared test. Results: In terms of oral mucosal conditions, 13.80% and 16.15% of the total study participants had oral submucous fibrosis and denture stomatitis, respectively. On periodontal examination, 1.82% of participants had bleeding on probing. Calculus was present in 21.36% of participants. 49.47% of study participants had pocket depth measuring 4–5 mm. Conclusion: The present study concludes that oral mucosal condition and periodontal status are poor in the institutionalized elderly living in geriatric homes of Dakshina Kannada district. 


Special care dentistry: Knowledge and attitudes among Indian dental students
Shivam Kapoor, Puneet Chahar, Vikrant Mohanty, Aswini Y Balappanavar

Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry 2019 17(2):108-113

Background: Special care dentistry (SCD) includes the provision of oral care for individuals with any disability or impairment. Published studies have reported poor oral health and quality of life. Providing quality treatment to the disabled population requires essential knowledge acquired by additional training. Objectives: The study aimed to explore the preparedness of dental students in Delhi to manage patients with special needs. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in December 2017, among 117 students of a tertiary care government dental hospital in Delhi. A questionnaire was developed using literature and previously administered surveys to assess knowledge, attitude, and institutional provisions pertaining to special care patients. Validity and reliability testing was carried out. Data were subjected to appropriate statistical measures and analyzed using SPSS version 22 (P < 0.05). Results: The study sample included postgraduate students (28.3%), undergraduate students (47.8%), and interns (23.9%). All of them felt that some special precautions are to be taken while treating a patient with special needs, whereas only half considered SCD as a different specialty. The majority (60%) were unaware regarding the availability of any special equipment for the disabled. However, they had some idea regarding the institutional provisions for special care patients. Conclusions: This survey reported positive attitude and comfort levels among dental students toward special care patients. However, there is an urgent need for professional associations to reorient dental curriculum with regard to SCD and train students appropriately. 


Assessment of musculoskeletal disorders and associated risk factors among dentists in Rajahmundry City: A cross-sectional study
Anvesh Gandham, Naveen Kumar Boppana, Narayana Rao Vinnakota, Kiran Karthik Burri, Usha Kiran Th, Akhil Pallepati

Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry 2019 17(2):114-118

Background: Like any other profession, dentistry is also plagued by many occupational health hazards (OHHs). Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the most common OHHs witnessed among dental practitioners. Aim: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors for MSDs among dental practitioners. Material and Methods: A prevalidated questionnaire was distributed among 150 dentists practicing in Rajahmundry city. The questionnaire was designed to procure information on demographic details and associated risk factors of MSDs experienced by them in the last 6 months. Chi-square test and multivariate regression analysis were employed to find significance among the study parameters and associated risk factors. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 23.0, IBM, Chicago, IL, USA), and P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Among the 150 respondents, 62.7% were males and 37.3% were females. The prevalence of MSD was observed as 58.7% and showed higher rates of pain in the neck (24%) followed by lower back region (20%) and upper back (14.7%). The associated risk factors were found to be number of working hours, number of cases treated per day, posture, and repetitive shoulder and hand movements (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study revealed a relatively high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among dentists, and there is a need to implement and practice preventive measures in order to minimize the problem. 


"Tobacco" – The silent slayer for oral premalignant lesions/ conditions among beedi rolling workers of Durg City, Chhattisgarh, India: A cross-sectional study
GY Yunus, Heena Sahni, N Naveen, Ram Tiwari, Balasubramanyam Vasant, Sudha Suman

Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry 2019 17(2):119-124

Background: Tobacco use is a major public health challenge and established risk factor for oral premalignant lesions and conditions in India. Workplace hazards are known to compromise the oral health of beedi-rolling workers. There is a scarcity of data about tobacco habits among these workers of Durg-Bhilai. Aim: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of tobacco-related habits and its associated lesions/conditions among beedi rolling workers of Durg-Bhilai, Chhattisgarh. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted for 1 month among 185 beedi rolling workers of Durg-Bhilai city. Data were collected using a 25-item, self-structured, close-ended questionnaire based on oral hygiene habits, tobacco usage habits, awareness regarding tobacco, and its ill effects. After taking detailed habitual history, workers were screened for oral premalignant lesions. Oral cavity was only clinically diagnosed using World Health Organization assessment form of oral premalignant lesions and conditions. Descriptive statistics using Chi-square test were applied using SPSS software version 16 (IBM, Chicago, IL, USA), and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of tobacco use was found to be 82.2%, with 15 (8.1%), 101 (54.6%), and 19.5% of workers involved in smoked, smokeless, and dual use, respectively. A total of 152 (82.1%) participants had one or more oral lesions. Leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis were observed in 27.6% and 13.5% of participants, respectively. Gudaku was used by 7.8% of participants, but it was not associated with any kind of oral lesions. Conclusion: The present study revealed a high prevalence of oral premalignant lesions with rampant misuse of tobacco products by these workers. There is an urgent need to create awareness regarding the ill effects of tobacco and also to initiate cessation programs among these workers. 


Sleep quality impact on the oral health status of sugar mill workers of Fazilka, Punjab: A cross-sectional study
Salvi Setia, Simarpreet Singh, Anmol Mathur, Manu Batra, Vikram Pal Aggarwal, Deeksha Gijwani

Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry 2019 17(2):125-129

Background: A trend toward adopting a 24/7 lifestyle, long working hours, and shift works in industries can adversely affect the sleep health of workers. Sleep deprivation not only has an adverse effect on physical health but may also affect oral health. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the impact of sleep quality on the oral health status of sugar mill workers of Fazilka, Punjab. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 237 participants. The oral health status of mill workers was assessed using simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), decayed-missing-filled surface (DMFS), community periodontal index (CPI), loss of attachment (LOA) indices, and sleep quality by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics Windows, Version 20.0. (Armonk, NY, USA: IBM Corp) for statistical analysis. Chi-square test and t-test were applied, and the level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Production line workers (72.25%) reported poor sleep quality in comparison to administrative workers. The oral health assessment showed statistically significantly higher DMFS, OHI-S, CPI, and LOA scores in workers with poor sleep (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Working environment of sugar mill was associated with the sleep quality of the workers which in turn affects their oral health as sleep deprivation leads to neglected oral care, more adverse habits, and thus poor oral health. 


Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
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