Πέμπτη, 20 Ιουνίου 2019

Functional Foods

Blueberry intake included in hypocaloric diet decreases weight, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and adenosine levels in obese subjects

Publication date: September 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 60

Author(s): María Fernanda Higuera-Hernández, Elena Reyes-Cuapio, Marissa Gutiérrez-Mendoza, Henning Budde, Carlos Blanco-Centurión, André Barciela Veras, Nuno Barbosa Rocha, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Diogo Monteiro, Jaime Zaldívar-Rae, Dalila Aldana-Aranda, Sérgio Machado, Eric Murillo-Rodríguez

Abstract

Obesity is a disease characterized by an excessive accumulation of fat in the body and it has been linked the enhancement of inflammation-related endogenous molecules, such as adenosine (AD). Since blueberries may induce anti-obesity effects, we tested the hypothesis that blueberries consumption contained in hypocaloric diet would decrease weight, BMI as well as glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and AD levels in obese subjects.The baseline conditions of obesity-related variables were collected for all subjects prior the implementation of blueberries intake. Later, participants received a hypocaloric diet that included the consumption of blueberries (50 g/day) during 30 days. We found that male obese subjects that consumed blueberries showed a decrease in weight, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and AD whereas female obese subjects that ate blueberries in hypocaloric diet showed no differences in weight, BMI, glucose and triglycerides but displayed a diminution in cholesterol and AD levels. Data suggest that intake of blueberries seems to decrease some of the obese-linked parameters in male or female subjects. Importantly, blueberry consumption decreased the inflammation-related compound AD in both sexes.

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Synthesis and cholesterol-reducing potential of water-soluble phytosterol derivative

Publication date: September 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 60

Author(s): Wen-Sen He, Lingling Li, Huihui Wang, Jiaxin Rui, Dandan Cui

Abstract

Phytosterols have recently received considerable attention. However, applications of these plant-derived lipids are greatly limited by water insolubility and poor oil solubility. Most previous studies have focused mainly on improving the oil solubility of phytosterols. The present study established an efficient method for synthesizing a water-soluble phytosterol derivative (PPGS-1000), employing [BSO3HMim]OTf as a catalyst. Here, the conversion of PPGS-1000 exceeded 94% over a short period (60 min). The cholesterol-reducing activity of PPGS-1000 was examined further in Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Additionally, the effect of PPGS-1000 on the mRNA expression of hepatic genes involved in cholesterol metabolism was explored. In rats, PPGS-1000 significantly reduced the serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, serum LDL-C/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and liver cholesterol level by 10.3%, 33.7%, 35.9% and 25.9%, respectively. PPGS-1000 markedly promoted fecal cholesterol excretion. And the expression of HMG-CoR, LDL-R and SREBP-2 mRNA in the liver was up-regulated after PPGS-1000 treatment. In conclusion, PPGS-1000 possessed a cholesterol-reducing potential.

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Spray-dried Spirulina platensis as an effective ingredient to improve yogurt formulations: Testing different encapsulating solutions

Publication date: September 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 60

Author(s): Samara C. da Silva, Isabel P. Fernandes, Lillian Barros, Ângela Fernandes, Maria José Alves, Ricardo C. Calhelha, Carla Pereira, João C.M. Barreira, Yaidelin Manrique, E. Colla, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira, M. Filomena Barreiro

Abstract

The consumption of foods functionalized with spirulina might have positive health effects. However, spirulina-based food products are usually associated with unpleasant flavor and odor, and can present non-homogeneous appearance, impairing consumers' acceptance. Moreover, it is important to assure bioactivity maintenance. To develop a novel food ingredient, spirulina was chemically characterized, and spray-dried using two encapsulating materials: i) maltodextrin and ii) maltodextrin crosslinked with citric acid. Thereafter, free and encapsulated spirulina were evaluated for their bioactive properties. Microencapsulated spirulina presented higher thermal stability than the base materials, while showing better anti-inflammatory activity without exerting cytotoxicity. Free and encapsulated spirulina were further added to yogurts to validate their suitability as functionalizing agents. Yogurts added with encapsulated spirulina presented a more homogeneous appearance, and the best solution was spirulina encapsulated in maltodextrin crosslinked with citric acid, considering the nutritional profile, attractive color, and improved antioxidant activity throughout storage time.

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Effect of berries/apple mixed juice consumption on the positive modulation of human lipid profile

Publication date: September 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 60

Author(s): Marta Habanova, Jorge A. Saraiva, Maria Holovicova, Silvia A. Moreira, Liliana G. Fidalgo, Miroslav Haban, Jan Gazo, Marianna Schwarzova, Peter Chlebo, Monika Bronkowska

Abstract

The increased berries consumption is of importance for human health improvement, helping protecting against a number of diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This study aimed investigating the effect of berries/apple juice consumption on human lipid profile. Healthy volunteers (36 women and 14 men) were instructed to consume 300 mL/day of juice for 21 days.

The consumption of juice resulted in a significant decrease of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels (only for men group), and significantly increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and total antioxidant status. Furthermore, atherogenic subfractions LDL3-7 in 5 women and 7 men at the baseline were found, reducing by 0.36 mmol/L (from 0.43 ± 0.19 to 0.06 ± 0.04 mmol/L) and 0.23 mmol/L (from 0.43 ± 0.19 to 0.20 ± 0.09 mmol/L) in the women's and men's group, respectively. The regular intake of berries/apple juice can be an important strategy to reduce CVDs risk, by positive modulation of the lipid profile and other health attributes in adults.

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Host-microbiome interactions in response to a high-saturated fat diet and fish-oil supplementation in zebrafish adult

Publication date: September 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 60

Author(s): Nerea Arias-Jayo, Leticia Abecia, José Luis Lavín, Itziar Tueros, Sara Arranz, Andoni Ramírez-García, Miguel Angel Pardo

Abstract

Diet is one of the main factors affecting host's health. The aim of this work was to study the interaction among nutrition, microbiota and host, using zebrafish adults as animal model. Thus, the effects of a high-saturated-fat diet, and its supplementation with a commercial fish-oil on fish lipid profile, intestinal microbiota and blood glucose were evaluated.

The dietary saturated fat changed the fish lipid profile, microbial community composition, and its metabolism. Saturated fatty acids levels were higher in fish fed the high-saturated-fat diet, which correlated with an increased in Pseudomonas. Otherwise, the commercial fish-oil intake ameliorated the effect of the fat on the lipid profile, lowering saturated fatty acid levels while increasing polyunsaturated fatty acids. It also contributed to limit the growth of Pseudomonas on intestinal microbial community. Furthermore, blood glucose diminished in animals fed fish-oil supplemented diet. This suggests that fish-oil may mitigate the effect of the high-saturated-fat-diet.

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Small black bean (Rhynchosia volubilis) extract ameliorates gut microbial and metabolic perturbation in ovariectomized mice

Publication date: September 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 60

Author(s): Kwang Hyun Cha, Kyung-A Kim, Suk Woo Kang, Seemi Tasnim Alam, Jong Beom Jin, Gyhye Yoo, Sang Hoon Jung, Cheol-Ho Pan, Kyungsu Kang

Abstract

Phytoestrogen is considered a promising natural remedy for various postmenopausal symptoms. However, most studies have focused on common soybean, Glycine max. Here, for the first time, we evaluated the in vivoeffect of a distinct species, small black bean (Rhynchosia volubilis), on ovariectomized mice and investigated its impact on the intestinal microbiota and metabolic status. Ovariectomized mice exhibited significant body weight gain, a typical postmenopausal symptom, and microbial changes, such as decreased α-diversity; changes in microbial composition, especially abundances of the families Desulfovibrionaceae and Mogibacteriaceaeand genus Dorea; and decreased amino acid and short-chain fatty acid levels. Administration of small black bean extract restores body weight and gut microbial perturbation to levels similar to those observed under normal conditions. Our data suggest that small black bean extract is a potential candidate functional food for treating postmenopausal symptoms via remodeling of the intestinal microbiome.

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Polysaccharides from Poria cocos (PCP) inhibits ox-LDL-induced vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation and migration by suppressing TLR4/NF-κB p65 signaling pathway

Publication date: September 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 60

Author(s): Weifeng Li, Jinmeng Zhao, Qing Yao, Wenqi Li, Wenbing Zhi, Lulu Zang, Fang Liu, Xiaofeng Niu

Abstract

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation and migration causes the tunica intimal thickening in atherosclerosis. Poria cocos polysaccharides (PCP) is the central active component extracted from Poria cocos, it has remarkable biological functions. However, the role of PCP in atherosclerosis has not been elucidated. In response, we investigated the effect of PCP on ox-LDL-induced VSMCs proliferation and migration. We demonstrate that PCP exerts an inhibitory effect on VSMCs proliferation through G0/G1 cell cycle arrest with the down-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclinD1. Likewise, the inhibition of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression might be a mechanism behinds the suppressive effect of PCP on ox-LDL-induced VSMCs migration. PCP also exhibits the same effect to the inhibitor of TLR4/NF-κB on alleviating the expression of p-IκBα, p-NF-κB and TLR4. These results indicate that PCP inhibits ox-LDL-induced VSMCs proliferation and migration through the suppression of TLR4/NF-κB p65 signaling pathway.

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Identification of novel oligopeptides from the simulated digestion of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) to alleviate Aβ aggregation progression

Publication date: September 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 60

Author(s): Xiaoling Lin, Maojin Yao, Jia-Hong Lu, Yi Wang, Xiquan Yin, Ming Liang, Erdong Yuan, Jiaoyan Ren

Abstract

The aim of this study was to isolate and identify peptides from sea cucumber hydrolysates prepared by simulated gastrointestinal digestion, and to evaluate the selected peptides against amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation using a mCherry-Aβ (E22G) cells model. The sub-fraction (F2-b-2) with the highest ORAC value (17.48 μmol TE/mg peptides) and the strongest anti-Aβ aggregation rate (36.12%), was purified by gel permeation chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. Nine novel oligopeptides (GMR, DVE, VFP, IGFH, LGFH, FQF, ICK, LCK and DWF) were identified from F2-b-2. By molecular docking, four of them (IGFH, LGFH, DWF and FQF) showed promising CD38 inhibitory activity. Besides, these four peptides (0.1 and 0.5 mM) also demonstrated significant anti-Aβ aggregation activity as compared to the model group (p < 0.01). This research suggested that oligopeptides derived from sea cucumber could be used as candidates for anti-Aβ aggregation, as well as the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

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Identification of anti-osteoclastogenic compounds from Cleistocalyx operculatus flower buds and their effects on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis

Publication date: September 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 60

Author(s): Phuong Thao Tran, Thi Quynh-Mai Ngo, Suhyun Lee, Okwha Kim, Huynh Nguyen Khanh Tran, Cheol Hwangbo, Byung Sun Min, Jeong-Hyung Lee

Abstract

Cleistocalyx operculatus flower buds are used as a main ingredient in various beverages and herbal tea in tropical areas. The present study was conducted to investigate anti-osteoclastogenic effects of ethanol extract of C. operculatus flower buds (ECB) and to identify anti-osteoclastogenic compounds in these buds. ECB significantly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and decreased RANKL-induced the activation of NFATc1. We isolated nineteen compounds from C. operculatus flower buds and found that eight compounds, including maslinic acid (6) and its two coumaroyl analogs (7 and 8), significantly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. Among these, 3-O-trans-p-coumaroyl maslinic acid (8) showed the most potent inhibitory effect on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis via impairment of c-Fos and NF-κB activation, and subsequently, NFATc1 activation. These results suggested that identification of the anti-osteoclastogenic compounds from C. operculatus flower buds may extend our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying biological activities of C. operculatus flower buds for osteoclast-related diseases.

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Dimerumic acid and deferricoprogen produced by Monascus purpureus attenuate liquid ethanol diet-induced alcoholic hepatitis via suppressing NF-κB inflammation signalling pathways and stimulation of AMPK-mediated lipid metabolism

Publication date: September 2019

Source: Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 60

Author(s): Jhao-Ru Lai, Bo-Jun Ke, Ya-Wen Hsu, Chun-Lin Lee

Abstract

Ethanol metabolism causes oxidative stress, inflammation, and then results in steatosis and liver injury. Monascus-fermented products and its secondary metabolites perform liver protection by anti-inflammation, anti-oxidatiion and protecting the liver. In this study, dimerumic acid and deferricoprogen produced by Monascus purpureus were first to investigate the protection against alcoholic liver disease. C57BL/6J mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet and orally given dimerumic acid and deferricoprogen daily for 6 weeks. The mechanisms involved in antioxidative system, anti-inflammatory, and lipid modulation were investigated. The results showed that dimerumic acid and deferricoprogen performed liver protection against ethanol-diet. The two compounds increased anti-oxidative enzymes activities (catalase, SOD, and GPx), suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, NF-κB, iNOS, and COX-2) via upregulating PPAR-γ and Nrf-2 pathway and inhibiting p-ERK1/2, and modulated lipid metabolism by upregulating AMPK and PPAR-α pathway. Therefore, dimerumic acid and deferricoprogen were both high potential hepatoprotective compounds produced by Monascus purpureus.

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Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
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