Σάββατο, 22 Ιουνίου 2019

Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology

Author Correction: Drier Climatic Conditions Increase Withanolide Content of Withania coagulans Enhancing its Inhibitory Potential against Human Prostate Cancer Cells

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the image of Figure 1 and in Table 4. The corrected version of the figure and table is shown here.

Application of Acid and Cold Stresses to Enhance the Production of Clavulanic Acid by Streptomyces clavuligerus


Clavulanic acid (CA) is frequently prescribed for treatment of bacterial infections. Despite the large number of studies concerning CA production, there is still a need to search for more effective and productive processes because it is mainly produced by biochemical route and is chemically unstable. This paper evaluates the influence of acid and cold stresses on CA production by Streptomyces clavuligerus in bench scale stirred tank bioreactor. Four batch cultures were conducted at constant pH (6.8 or 6.3) and temperature (30, 25, or 20 °C) and five batch cultures were performed with application of acid stress (pH reduction from 6.8 to 6.3), cold stress (reduction from 30 to 20 °C), or both. The highest maximum CA concentration (684.4 mg L−1) was obtained in the culture conducted at constant temperature of 20 °C. However, the culture under acid stress, in which the pH was reduced from 6.8 to 6.3 at a rate of 0.1 pH unit every 6 h, provided the most promising result, exhibiting a global yield coefficient of CA relative to cell formation (YCA/X) of 851.1 mgCA gX−1. High YCA/X values indicate that a small number of cells are able to produce a large amount of antibiotic with formation of smaller amounts of side byproducts. This could be especially attractive for decreasing the complexity and cost of the downstream processing, enhancing CA production.

Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel Cholestanoheterocyclic Steroids as Anticancer Agents


Modification of steroid molecules by introducing heterocyclic ring into the core structure of steroids has been utilized as an attractive approach for either cancer prognosis or diagnosis. Several new cholestanoheterocyclic steroids were synthesized, and analytical and spectral data proved the validity of the novel synthesized steroid derivatives. The cytotoxicity of synthesized compounds 34579101315b, and 16b was evaluated using human colorectal cancer HCT 116 and Caco-2, cervical cancer HeLa, hepatoma HepG2, and breast cancer MCF7 cell lines. Intriguingly, compound 13 has the highest cytotoxic effect when applied on the majority of cancer cells. In conclusion, compound 13 may be considered as a promising anticancer candidate against all cancer cell lines, because it recorded the lowest IC50 of the majority of the cancer cell lines used. Furthermore, a molecular docking study was employed to determine the binding modes against aromatase cytochrome P450 (CYP19), cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), and B-cell lymphoma (BCL-2) proteins, which are major proteins involved in the pathogenesis of cancer. Molecular docking analyses revealed that compounds 133, and 5 (free energy of binding = − 9.2, − 9.1, and − 9.0 kcal/mol, respectively) were the best docked ligand against aromatase CYP19; compounds 16b39, and 10 (free energy of binding = − 9.6, − 9.3, and − 9.2 kcal/mol, respectively) were the best docked ligand against CDK2, while compounds 15b16b, and 13 (free energy of binding = − 9.1, − 9.0, and− 8.7 kcal/mol, respectively) were the best docked ligand against BCL2. In conclusion, compounds 313, and 16b were the most promising compounds with the lowest IC50s against most of the tested cancer cell lines, and they displayed the lowest binding energies, critical hydrogen bonds, and hydrophobic interactions with the three molecular targets compared to other tested compounds.

Fabrication and Cytocompatibility Evaluation of Psyllium Husk (Isabgol)/Gelatin Composite Scaffolds


Psyllium husk or isabgol contains xylan backbone linked with arabinose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid units (arabinoxylans). In this study, we demonstrate the fabrication and characterization of a macroporous three-dimensional (3D) composite scaffold by mixing psyllium husk powder (PH) and gelatin (G) in different ratios, viz.100 PH, 75/25 PH/G, and 50/50 PH/G (w/w), using an EDC-NHS coupling reaction followed by freeze-drying method. The reaction was performed in aqueous as well as in alcoholic media to determine the most appropriate solvent system for this purpose. The mechanical strength of the scaffold system was improved from 151 to 438 kPa. The fabricated scaffolds exhibited enhanced structural stability, remarkable swelling capacity, and escalated cell growth and proliferation. ATR-FTIR analysis showed the presence of amide and ester bonds indicating covalent crosslinking. SEM micrographs revealed the porous nature of the scaffolds with pores ranging from 30 to 150 μm, and further pore size distribution curve indicated that 75/25 PH/G (w/w%) EDC-NHS-alcohol scaffold exhibited the best fit to the Gaussian distribution. Swelling capacity of the 100 PH EDC-NHS-alcohol scaffolds was found to be nearly 40% from its original weight in 48 h. MTT assay using fibroblast cells revealed ~ 80% cellular proliferation by 6th day within the fabricated scaffolds in comparison to control.

Graphical Abstract

Adsorption Study of Acid Soluble Lignin Removal from Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysate by a Self-Synthesized Resin for Lipid Production


An adsorption resin CX-6 was synthesized and used for acid soluble lignin (ASL) removal from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate (SCBH). The adsorption conditions of pH value, amount of adsorbent, initial ASL concentration, and temperature on ASL adsorption were discussed. The results showed the adsorption capacity of ASL was negatively affected by increasing temperature, solution pH, and adsorbent dose, and was positively affected by increasing initial concentration. The maximum adsorption capacity of ASL was 135.3 mg/g at initial ASL concentration 6.46 g/L, adsorption temperature 298 K, and pH 1. Thermodynamic study demonstrated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. Equilibrium and kinetics experiments were proved to fit the Freundlich isotherm model and pseudo-second-order model well, respectively. Fermentation experiment showed that the SCBH after combined overliming with resin adsorption as fermentation substrate for microbial lipid production by Trichosporon cutaneum and Trichosporon coremiiforme was as better as that of SCBH by combined overliming with active charcoal adsorption, and more efficient than that of SCBH only by overliming. Moreover, the regeneration experiment indicated that the CX-6 resin is easy to regenerate and its recirculated performance is stable. In conclusion, our results provide a promising adsorbent to detoxify lignocellulose hydrolysate for further fermentation.

Hydrolysis of Corn Stover by Talaromyces cellulolyticus Enzymes: Evaluation of the Residual Enzymes Activities Through the Process


The obtainment of sugars from lignocellulosic residues represents a sustainable and versatile platform for the production of a number of bio-based products. Cellulases are a family of enzymes which can effectively hydrolyze the biomass polysaccharides at mild conditions. Cellulolytic fungi belonging to the genera Trichoderma and Aspergillus are the most commonly source of commercial cellulases used so far. More recently, Talaromyces cellulolyticus was also scored as a promising cellulases producer. In comparison to the Trichoderma and Aspergillus systems, Talaromyces enzymes have been less investigated. The present research dealt with the conversion of steam-pretreated corn stover by commercial blend of T. cellulolyticus enzymes with respect to the common blends. The paper also investigated the stability of the enzyme preparation and tested the use of additives (namely Tween 80, Tween 20, and BSA) to improve the enzymes performances and the hydrolysis efficiency. The results indicated that, at the same process conditions, T. cellulolyticus cellulases were more effective and yielded 20% more sugars compared to control blends. Furthermore, the cellulase components displayed a synergistic interaction with hemicellulases. The results indicate that cellulases from T. cellulolyticusare less affected by the high dry matter consistency and the use of additives could increase the total activity by around 50% and β-glucosidase capacity by 10–15%.

Effect of High Pressure on Paracoccus denitrificans Growth and Polyhydroxyalkanoates Production from Glycerol


The performance of fermentation under non-conventional conditions, such as high pressure (HP), is a strategy currently tested for different fermentation processes. In the present work, the purpose was to apply HP (10–50 MPa) to fermentation by Paracoccus denitrificans, a microorganism able to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from glycerol. In general, cell growth and glycerol consumption were both reduced by HP application, more extensively at higher pressure levels, such as 35 or 50 MPa. PHA production and composition was highly dependent on the pressure applied. HP was found to decrease polymer titers, but increase the PHA content in cell dry mass (%), indicating higher ability to accumulate these polymers in the cells. In addition, some levels of HP affected PHA monomeric composition, with the polymer produced at 10 and 35 MPa showing considerable differences relative to the ones obtained at atmospheric pressure. Therefore, it is possible to foresee that the changes in polymer composition may also affect its physical and mechanical properties. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that HP technology (at specific levels) can be applied to P. denitrificans fermentations without compromising the ability to produce PHA, with potentially interesting effects on polymer composition.

The Profile of Plasma Free Amino Acids in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Insulin Resistance: Association with Microalbuminuria and Macroalbuminuria


Altered plasma levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs) may predict the development of insulin resistance and other type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated comorbidities. To elucidate the role of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs) profile as a biomarker for early detection of diabetic kidney disease, quantitative measurement of PFAAs profile was determined for 90 T2DM subjects, 30 were free of nephropathy, 30 with microalbuminuria, 30 with macroalbuminuria, and in addition to 30 healthy controls. The plasma levels of valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, citrulline, and total BCAAs were significantly increased in diabetic normoalbuminuria group when compared to controls. However, the total BCAAs level was significantly decreased in diabetic patients with micro and macroalbuminuria. Other amino acid plasma levels as tyrosine, arginine, ornithine, glycine, and the total AAAs level were significantly decreased in all diabetic subgroups compared to controls. Significant positive correlations between total BCAAs, valine, leucine, isoleucine, serum insulin, glucose, and HOMA-IR values in the diabetic normoalbuminuria group were found. The use of altered PFAAs profile as a prognostic factor in T2DM patients at risk for microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria might reduce or prevent the incidence of end-stage diabetic renal disease.

Expanding of Phospholipid:Diacylglycerol AcylTransferase (PDAT) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae as Multifunctional Biocatalyst with Broad Acyl Donor/Acceptor Selectivity


Triacylglycerols are considered one of the most promising feedstocks for biofuels. Phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT), responsible for the last step of triacylglycerol synthesis in the acyl-CoA-independent pathway, has attracted much attention by catalyzing membrane lipid transformation. However, due to lack of biochemical and enzymatic studies, PDAT has not carried forward in biocatalyst application. Here, the PDAT from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was expressed in Pichia pastoris. The purified enzymes were studied using different acyl donors and acceptors by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. In addition of the preferred acyl donor of PE and PC, the results identified that ScPDAT was capable of using broad acyl donors such as PA, PS, PG, MGDG, DGDG, and acyl-CoA, and ScPDAT was more likely to use unsaturated acyl donors comparing 18:0/18:1 to 18:0/18:0 phospholipids. With regard to acyl acceptors, ScPDAT preferred 1,2 to 1,3-diacylglycerol (DAG), while 12:0/12:0 DAG was identified as the optimal acyl acceptor, followed by 18:1/18:1 and 18:1/16:0 DAG. Additionally, ScPDAT reveals esterification activity that can utilize methanol as acyl acceptor to generate fatty acid methyl esters. The results fully expand the enzymatic selectivity of ScPDAT and provide fundamental knowledge for synthesis of triacylglycerol-derived biofuels.

Determination of Fucose Concentration in a Lectin-Based Displacement Microfluidic Assay


We compare three different methods to quantify the monosaccharide fucose in solutions using the displacement of a large glycoprotein, lactoferrin. Two microfluidic analysis methods, namely fluorescence detection of (labeled) lactoferrin as it is displaced by unlabeled fucose and the displacement of (unlabeled) lactoferrin in SPR, provide fast responses and continuous data during the experiment, theoretically providing significant information regarding the interaction kinetics between the saccharide groups and binding sites. For comparison, we also performed a static displacement ELISA. The stationary binding site in all cases was immobilized S2-AAL, a monovalent polypeptide based on Aleuria aurantia lectin. Although all three assays showed a similar dynamic range, the microfluidic assays with fluorescent or SPR detection show an advantage in short analysis times. Furthermore, the microfluidic displacement assays provide a possibility to develop a one-step analytical platform.

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos

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