Σάββατο, 22 Ιουνίου 2019

Acta Neurochirurgica

JEDI (jugular entrapment, dilated ventricles, intracranial hypertension) syndrome: a new clinical entity? A case report


Patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension are frequently obese women with normal/slit ventricles. Patients with high-pressure hydrocephalus, instead, present enlarged ventricles. We describe a 63-year-old woman with signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension. Brain MRI revealed hydrocephalus. Venous Doppler ultrasound showed external compression of the omohyoid muscles on the internal jugular veins. During jugular vein decompression, intracranial pressure dropped from 18 to 6 mmHg. Patient is asymptomatic at 2-year follow-up, with decreased brain ventricles. These findings could represent a novel form of high-pressure hydrocephalus that can be successfully treated without a CSF shunt. We called this syndrome JEDI (jugular entrapment dilated ventricles intracranial hypertension).

Thromboembolic infarction caused by an unknown patent foramen ovale 30 years after VA shunt insertion: a case report and review of the literature



Ventriculoatrial shunt (VA) insertion is one of the possible surgical procedures to treat hydrocephalus. However, it is also associated with several complications such as obstruction and shunt infection as well as life-threatening complications like intraatrial thrombus or thrombosis on the distal catheter. In this case report, we share a rare case of a patient with a VA shunt, who was admitted to our hospital with a stroke.

Case description

A 56-year-old female patient with suspected acute stroke was admitted to the stroke unit. CT and MRI scans showed multiple cerebral infarctions in both hemispheres. The transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) showed at the tip of the VA shunt catheter, which was implanted about 30 years ago due to aqueduct stenosis, also a thrombotic formation as the reason of stroke. Interestingly, the tip of the catheter was not in the right atrium as expected, but in the left atrium. Further evaluation showed a patent foramen ovale (PFO), through which the catheter migrated from the right to the left side. At first, conservative treatment with anticoagulation was started with the aim to dissolve the thrombotic formation; however, a control TEE showed an unchanged mass at the catheter tip. Therefore, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was implanted and the proximal shunt catheter was removed with an additional closure of the PFO by our heart surgeons. Postoperatively, the patient was discharged 10 days later in good condition to a rehabilitation center.


Thromboembolic events due to a PFO are rare but possible life-threatening complication after VA shunt insertion. Therefore, preoperative cardiac diagnostic might be clinically relevant prior to a VA shunt implantation to avoid such complications.

Fraction of anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient as diagnostic tools in trigeminal neuralgia

Diabetes insipidus—an extremely rare complication from replacement of an external ventricular drain


Insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is one of the most common and most important lifesaving procedures encountered in the neurologic intensive care unit, but often done by the junior members of the team. A good number of complications may follow the insertion of EVD. In the available literature, only one case was reported with the placement of EVD in suprasellar cistern. There is no report of insertion or replacement of an EVD in the sella. Diabetes insipidus (DI) is also an unheard of complication of EVD. Here, we report a case where a patient with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) with acute hydrocephalus needed CSF diversion and had an EVD, during replacement of which through the same tract, the new EVD went into the sellar floor and she developed diabetes insipidus (DI) eventually. The catheter was pulled out and the DI settled. DI may occur as a consequence of SAH. The rationale behind reporting this case is to differentiate the cause of DI; as following insertion of EVD in a patient of SAH, the development of DI should raise the suspicion of misplaced EVD, should not be left as a consequence of SAH and appropriate imaging should be obtained. To prevent this happening, preoperative verification of CT, image-guided insertion, measurement of the length of the tubing and careful anchorage of EVD to surrounding tissue are necessary.

Correction to: Ruptured PICA aneurysms: presentation and treatment outcomes compared to other posterior circulation aneurysms. A Swiss SOS study

Incorrect authorgroup and authorname.

A rare case of cervical junction ligamentous cyst


Ligamentous cyst is a cystic formation arising from degeneration of ligamentous structures all around the spinal cord. They can cause spinal cord compression, like synovial cyst. Unlike synovial cyst, there is no spinal instability in pathogenesis of ligamentous cyst. Differential diagnosis through pre-operative MRI is difficult and intraoperative findings plus histopathology are crucial to achieve a diagnosis. In this case report, we deal with a rare case of cervical junction ligamentous cyst. A 59-year-old Caucasian female was admitted in our ward with left-sided hemiparesis, cervical pain, and upper limb diffused paresthesias, due to an oval-shaped formation into ALL, of 13 mm in maximum diameter, with peripheral contrast enhancement. The patient underwent, under general anesthesia, a surgery through a posterolateral suboccipital approach which aimed to decompress the spinal cord and to drain the cyst with total removal of the compression by emptying the cyst and fulfilling it with muscle graft and glue. No posterior fixation was needed. After the surgery, symptoms improved and a post-operative MRI scan demonstrated the good result of the surgery.

Delirium in neurosurgery

Progress in Neurological Surgery (Vol. 30–32)Editors: Chernov MF, Muragahi Y, Kesari S, McCutcheon I.E. (2018), ISBN: 978-3-318-06074-4 Karger

How I do it: 3D exoscopic endoscope-assisted microvascular decompression



Microvascular decompression (MVD) is an effective treatment for drug-resistant trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. However, failure of symptomatic improvement can arise from difficulties in identifying and/or decompressing the offending vessel. Microscopic and endoscopic techniques have been used to improve visualisation and safety of the procedure but there are limitations to each technique.


A 3D exoscopic endoscope-assisted MVD technique is described, including advice on potential pitfalls.


Compared with the standard microscope-assisted techniques, the 3D exoscopic endoscope-assisted MVD offers an improved visualisation without compromising the field of view within and outside the surgical field.

Decompressive craniectomy in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis during pregnancy: a case report


Pregnancy and puerperium are risk factors for cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), a condition which nowadays is treated non-operatively. Decompressive craniectomy is reserved only for emergency settings. We present a 22-year-old pregnant lady, who was transferred at the emergency department with a reduced level of consciousness, headache, and nuchal rigidity. Her MRI study showed CVST, causing hemorrhagic infarct and midline shift. She underwent decompressive craniectomy with partial removal of the hemorrhagic parenchyma. Remarkably, she recovered without any neurological deficits regardless of the substantial temporal lobe damage, while the thrombus nearly resolved using anticoagulation. Decompressive craniectomy can be life-saving in selected CVST patients, followed by anticoagulantion to augment the recanalization process.

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos

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