Παρασκευή, 21 Ιουνίου 2019

Acarology

Coexistence of genetically different Varroa destructor in Apis mellifera colonies

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of Varroa destructor parasitizing Apis mellifera colonies and to test for possible host–parasite association at the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) level. Six A. melliferahaplotypes (including a novel C2aa) and five haplotypes of V. destructor were detected in 29 analyzed colonies from eight sampling sites in Serbia. We revealed the presence of the K and S1 haplotypes as well as KS1 and KP1 heteroplasmic mite individuals in all localities, while the P1 haplotype was only found in four sampling sites. Significant differences in V. destructor genetic diversity were found at both apiary and colony levels, with mite haplotypes coexisting in almost all tested colonies. In addition, a significant correlation between the number of analyzed mites per colony and the number of identified V. destructor haplotypes was observed. However, no significant host–parasite relationship was found, suggesting that mites bearing different haplotypes as well as those heteroplasmic individuals are well adapted to the host, A. mellifera, independently of the identified haplotype present in each colony. Our results will contribute to future population and biogeographic studies concerning V. destructor infesting A. mellifera, as well as to better understanding their host–parasite relationship.



Proteomic analysis of saliva from partially and fully engorged adult female Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

Abstract

Rhipicephalus microplus salivary gland secretes a number of complex bioactive proteins during feeding. These components are important in feeding and affect anti-coagulation, anti-inflammation and also have anti-microbial effects. In this study, tick saliva was collected from partially engorged female (PEF) and fully engorged female (FEF) ticks. Liquid chromatography tandem–mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) were used to identify and quantify R. microplus salivary proteins. A total of 322 unique peptides were detected and 151 proteins were characterized in both PEF and FEF. Of these, 41 proteins are considered as high-confidence proteins. Fifteen high-confidence proteins were upregulated and six high-confidence proteins were downregulated (p < 0.05; PEF:FEF ratio ≥ 1.2 or PEF:FEF ratio ≤ 0.83); 17 high-confidence proteins are slightly changed (PEF:FEF ratio > 0.83 and < 1.2). These high-confidence proteins are involved in several physiological roles, including egg development, transportation of proteins, immunity and anti-microorganism, anti-coagulant, and adhesion. In comparison with PEF, the number of upregulated proteins exceeded the number of proteins downregulated. Salivary protein may be induced by the blood-meal and these proteins contribute to successful feeding.



Molecular identification of spotted fever group Rickettsia in ticks collected from dogs and small ruminants in Greece

Abstract

Spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia are zoonotic and emerging pathogens with considerable impact in public and animal health. Greece is an endemic country of diseases caused by SFG Rickettsia. This work aims to evaluate the prevalence of SFG Rickettsia in ticks collected from domestic hosts including sheep, goats and dogs. Several genetic markers for bacterial genes, such as 16S rRNA, ompA, ompB, atpA, gltA, recA, dnaA and dnaK, were amplified and sequenced to accurately classified the rickettsial pathogens in the ticks. Taxonomy and species classification of the Rickettsia was achieved by combining phylogenetic and in silico digestion analysis of the gene sequences obtained. A total of 187 ticks were collected and classified at the species level as Ixodes gibosus, Dermacentor marginatus, Haemaphysalis parva, H. sulcata, H. punctata, Hyalomma scavatum, Rhipicephalus sanguineusR. bursa and Rhipicephalus sp. The results showed that 7.5% of ticks were infected with at least one SFG Rickettsia including R. massiliae (n = 3), R. slovaca (n = 5), R. raoultii (n = 1) and R. hoogstraalii (n = 5), collected from sheep (n = 4), goats (n = 5) and dogs (n = 3). Molecular analysis revealed the presence of novel genetic variants of R. hoogstraalii (in H. sulcata and H. parva from goat and sheep) and R. raoultii (in D. marginatus from goat). These results proof the presence of SFG Rickettsia in domestic hosts in Greece, and support the need for continued monitoring, surveillance and further analyses of other hosts and study areas.



Identifying the tick Amblyomma javanense (Acari: Ixodidae) from Chinese pangolin: generating species barcode, phylogenetic status and its implication in wildlife forensics

Abstract

Zoonotic diseases transmitted through ticks and other ectoparasites often travel across the globe with illegally traded wildlife parts and products. In this study, we analyzed a confiscated case of pangolin scales and observed a few dead ticks attached. On genetic analysis, the pangolin scales were identified to be originated from Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla), an IUCN listed Critically Endangered species, and ticks were identified as Amblyomma javanense. Here, we provide the first authentic physical record of A. javanense from India as a parasite of Chinese pangolin and also generated its species DNA barcode that may be useful for biologists working on ticks in species validation and constructing phylogenies across the globe.



A relapsing fever Borrelia and spotted fever Rickettsia in ticks from an Andean valley, central Chile

Abstract

In humans, emerging infectious diseases are mostly zoonoses with ticks playing an important role as vectors. Tick-borne relapsing fever Borrelia and spotted fever Rickettsia occur in endemic foci along tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. However, both are widely neglected etiologic agents. In this study, we performed molecular analyses in order to assess the presence of Borrelia and Rickettsia DNA in ticks infesting small-mammals within a National Reserve located in the Andes Mountains, central Chile. While hard ticks were negative for the presence of both agents, sequences of four rickettsial (gltAhtrAompAompB) and two borrelial (16S rRNA and flaB) genes were obtained from larvae of an Ornithodoros sp. morphologically related with Ornithodoros atacamensis. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the detected Borrelia and Rickettsia spp. belong to the relapsing fever and spotted fever groups, respectively. Moreover, the agents formed monophyletic clades with Rickettsia amblyommatis and "Candidatus Borrelia johnsonii." As positive ticks parasitize rodents within a highly visited National Reserve where outdoor activities are of common practice, the risk for human parasitism should not be discarded.



Feeding and respiratory gas exchange of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae)

Abstract

Ticks are subject to various environmental constrains, such as dehydration, desiccation and long-waiting for hosts to attach. These factors are crucial for tick survival in the environment. Ticks have developed physiological mechanisms and/or strategies that allow adaptability and survival in the environment in which they live, such as spiracle control and cyclical or discontinuous gas exchanges. However, details of gas exchange profile have been reported only in a few tick species in the past. The present study aims to identify and describe respiratory gas exchange patterns in a tropical population of the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and effects of blood feeding. Adult female ticks were fed on rabbit hosts. Partially fed (4 to 6 days) and completely fed (> 9 days) ticks were collected daily during feeding, weighed and subjected to CO2 emission measurement at 25 °C using flow-through respirometry. Unfed adult females showed a well-defined periodical burst of CO2 emissions, followed by short periods of low-emission intercepts. The fed groups had drastic changes in respiratory profiles with semi-engorged females showing a high-intensity respiratory pattern alternating between continuous and discontinuous and the engorged females showing a continuous respiratory pattern with high frequency and intensity. The findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of the respiratory physiological process of a tropical population of the dog tick, which may help future investigations on other biological aspects of this ectoparasite and development of control measures.



The effect of sublethal concentrations of deltamethrin and alphacypermethrin on the fecundity and development of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) eggs and larvae

Abstract

Two pyrethroids, deltamethrin (D) and alphacypermethrin (AC), have been used as commercial products for tick control worldwide. However, the effects of sublethal doses of these compounds on various tick species and their developmental stages have not been fully explored yet, although such knowledge could contribute to a more effective application of both pyrethroids and simultaneous reduction of their costs and undesirable side effects, including the harmful impact on other organisms and environmental contamination. This study investigates the effect of sublethal concentrations of D and AC applied to engorged females on the fecundity, development of eggs and larvae, and the number of offspring in the Ixodes ricinus (L.) tick, which is the most important vector of tick-borne diseases of humans in Europe. After detachment from rabbit's skin, fully engorged I. ricinus females were treated with 20 μl of pyrethroid solutions at five concentrations from 0.01562 to 0.25% and kept at 28 °C and 75% relative humidity. The impact of the pyrethroids on maturation and development of eggs as well as development of larvae was assessed based on parameters of the preoviposition and oviposition periods and the course of embryogenesis and egg hatch. The investigations have shown that both tested acaricides reduce the reproductive rate in I. ricinus females by inhibition of egg development and disturb embryonic development and larval hatch. Females did not lay eggs at concentrations higher than 0.0625% AC and 0.125% D. The lower concentrations of both pyrethroids disturbed or inhibited the embryogenesis and egg hatch in I. ricinus.



Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting dogs in Nigeria: epidemiological and public health implications

Abstract

Ticks are haematophagous arthropods that exert direct and indirect effects on their hosts. Their global importance as reservoirs and vectors of diseases of veterinary and public health importance is well recognized. However, the level of understanding of their role in disease epidemiology varies from one country to the other based on available data. Information on ticks infesting dogs across Nigeria and the public health significance is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to provide information on ixodid ticks infesting dogs in Nigeria. Ticks were collected from 608 owned dogs presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals in 10 out of 36 states of Nigeria over a 14-month period and identified using taxonomic descriptions and morphological keys. In all, 1196 ticks belonging to three genera were identified. Rhipicephalus (including the subgenus Boophilus) ticks were collected from dogs from all the states surveyed and accounted for 95.2% of the ticks collected, followed by Haemaphysalis (3.7%) and Amblyomma species (1.2%). The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato was the only tick identified in all the climatic zones of Nigeria. There is a statistically significant association between tick infection rate and rainy season, female animals, local and cross breed against exotic animals, total lack of control practice by dog owners, frequency of the control and with traditional methods of tick control but not the age of the dogs. The epidemiological and public health implications of these findings were discussed.



Wind speed predicts population dynamics of the eriophyid mite Floracarus perrepae on invasive Old World climbing fern ( Lygodium microphyllum ) in a shade house colony

Abstract

Lygodium microphyllum is one of the most noxious invasive plants in Florida, USA, smothering native vegetation in cypress swamps, pine flatwoods, and Everglades tree islands and altering fire regimes. The eriophyid mite Floracarus perrepae was introduced from Australia to help control L. microphyllum infestations. While F. perrepae exhibits high population growth rates in its native range, its population dynamics in Florida are unknown, particularly the dynamics that occur within the leaf roll galls the mite induces on the margins of leaves. Here, we monitored a shade house colony of F. perrepae in south Florida for 2 years to identify seasonal patterns and potential climate drivers of within-gall mite density. Gall dissections of mite-infested colony plants were performed monthly. Mite density within galls exhibited two cycles per year: a strong cycle that boomed in spring and busted in summer, and a weak cycle that moderately increased mite density in fall and declined in winter. Climate variables, particularly those related to wind speed, were positively associated with higher mite density. Our study sheds light on the within-gall dynamics of F. perrepae and suggests that the highest within-gall mite densities occur in the spring and fall.



Molecular markers and their application in the monitoring of acaricide resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus

Abstract

Monitoring acaricide resistance and understanding the underlying mechanisms are critically important in developing strategies for resistance management and tick control. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the acaricide-resistant associated gene of Rhipicephalus microplus has enabled the development of molecular markers for detection and monitoring of resistance against different types of acaricide. There are many molecular markers developed for resistance monitoring, including mutations on target genes such as sodium channel, acetylcholinesterase, carboxylesterase, β-adrenergic octopamine receptor, octopamine–tyramine etc. Molecular genotyping through molecular markers can detect the presence of resistance-associated genes in a tick population before it reaches high frequency. This review aims to provide an update on the various molecular markers discovered to date from different regions of the world.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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