Κυριακή, 12 Μαΐου 2019

Sexuality

The Condom

Abstract

Since time immemorial the condom has been a tool for barrier contraception worldwide. Its role in prevention of sexually transmitted infections is remarkably significant for mankind. Its use in non-contraceptive fields is worth knowing as well. The transition of this amazing tool over the ages in form of material, texture, properties, colour etc. is not only unique but also a feat of human expertise and excellence. The commercial worth of this industry illustrates its importance in society.



Intimate Partner Violence Against Disabled Persons: Clinical and Health Impact, Intersections, Issues and Intervention Strategies

Abstract

One of the crimes currently affecting our society is intimate partner violence (IPV), which is regarded as a major global health issue especially affecting women. These health problems concern every citizen, but even more so for women with disabilities who are more exposed to dependence, prejudice and marginalisation. Although a greater focus has been placed on IPV against women with disabilities during the last decade, data about the incidence of violence still need to be confirmed and the way by which abuse situations are perpetuated has not been clarified, especially regarding what the practical aid for women living in this situation might be. This work highlights the clinical impact of the IPV phenomenon on women with disabilities, describes the difficulties experienced while dealing with this phenomenon and suggests the most appropriate intervention strategies. Our work found that people with disabilities are at a higher risk of facing IPV when compared to individuals without disabilities. The results unquestionably show that such acts of violence are often not even reported, partly because of sentimental, emotional and economic reasons. Finally, we point out policies and initiatives aimed at helping people with disabilities tackle the phenomenon.



Challenging Accepted Scripts of Sexual "Normality": Asexual Narratives of Non-normative Identity and Experience

Abstract

Sexual desire is often assumed to be natural and universally experienced by all adult human beings. The lived experiences of asexual individuals, however, are beginning to challenge this assumption. The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of asexual experience and identity. This study employed life story interviews with ten self-identified asexual individuals. Results show that asexuality is far more complicated than just a lack of sexual attraction. Respondents in this study arrived at an asexual identity after a discovery process, one that involved research on various sexualities. Participants report discovering an identity that "fit" through research on digital mediums, with Reddit being particularly influential. Several respondents reported trouble with their gender identity, particularly the set of sexual expectations that were hitched to their respective gender expressions. Many respondents noted that they were often assumed to be homosexual. Several participants described their "coming out" process as very similarly aligned with homosexual disclosure. Most respondents first had sexual encounters before realizing their asexual orientation. All respondents experienced relationships, community, connection and romance on their own terms, in unique and creative ways. This group of participants were by no means isolated. Indeed, all interviewees reported involvement in strong communities and many respondents experienced support from others. That said, several respondents did endure resistance, denial and pathologizing reactions from other people, including family members. The insights from this study challenge the normative ways we imagine sexuality, romance and attraction.



Littles: Affects and Aesthetics in Sexual Age-Play

Abstract

This article explores the experiences and practices of self-identifying female sexual age-players. Based on interviews and observation of the age players' blogged content, the article suggests that, rather than being fixed in one single position, our study participants move between a range of roles varying across their different scenes. In examining accounts of sexual play, we argue that the notion of play characterizes not only their specific routines of sexual "scening" but also sexual routines, experimentations, and experiences more expansively. Further, we argue that a focus on play as exploration of corporeal possibilities allows for conceptualizing sexual preferences and practices, such as age-play, as irreducible to distinct categories of sexual identity. The notion of play makes it possible to consider sexuality in terms of transformations in affective intensities and attachments, without pigeonholing various preferences, or acts, within a taxonomy of sexual identities. In doing so, it offers an alternative to the still prevalent categorical conceptualizations of sexuality that stigmatize people's lived experiences and diminish the explanatory power of scholarly and therapeutic narratives about human sexuality.



Relationships and Infidelity in Pornography: An Analysis of Pornography Streaming Websites

Abstract

Research suggests that pornography has the potential to inform sexual and romantic scripts, but no studies have examined the relational content within modern mainstream pornography. In this article, we present a content analysis of 190 sexually explicit online video clips from mainstream pornography streaming websites, coding for the relationship between participants (if any) and whether the video portrayed acts of infidelity. We also contrasted those clips with a comparison sample of 77 YouTube videos. We found that depictions of on-screen committed relationships were relatively rare in pornography (7.9% of videos) compared to YouTube (18.2%), but that infidelity was relatively common (25.3% vs. 2.6%), with pornography more likely to depict women as engaging in infidelity than men. Relational content was more likely to be included in a pornographic clip when the video portrayed a fictional narrative. These findings are consistent with past research connecting pornography consumption with open and liberal sexuality.



"There are Certain Rules that One Must Abide by": Predictors of Mortality in Slasher Films

Abstract

Slasher films, a popular and lucrative sub-genre of horror movie, are often thought to be characterized by violence, gratuitous sexual content and specific, repetitive tropes; however, although these tropes have been widely discussed and even parodied, there is scant research examining their validity. Thirty top-grossing slasher films (10 each for the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s) were subjected to content analysis at the level of the individual character to examine the factors associated with character deaths or survival. Characters who were shown nude on screen, who dressed in a revealing fashion, who did not engage in fight behaviors against the antagonist and who engaged in fewer types of pro-social behaviors were more likely to be killed. Several common tropes of slasher films (e.g., virgins survive, ethnic minority characters die) were not supported. The implications of these messages of which characters are depicted as "deserving" of survival are discussed in terms of gender, sexual scripts, and agency.



Ideological and Philosophical Underpinnings of Attitudes Toward Sexual Minorities in Vietnamese Society

Abstract

This paper examines the ideological and philosophical underpinnings of attitudes toward sexual minorities in Vietnamese society. The analysis focuses on the so-called 'Three Teachings' (Tam giáo) consisting of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism which are widely regarded as the most influential philosophies that shape Vietnamese culture and society. It is argued that these ideologies and philosophies engender systems of thought that resonate with how Vietnamese people think about and act toward sexual minorities. The article concludes with implications for research and practice in advancing the rights of sexual minorities in contexts bearing such influences.



Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Marriage in a Greek Sample

Abstract

This study examined the role of specific social variables in the prediction of negative attitudes toward same sex marriage in a Greek sample. Based on previous research, it appeared that gender, age, political ideology (conservatism), religiosity and personal contact, are useful variables to examine in predicting attitudes towards same sex marriage. The sample (N = 391) consisted of students and non-students at various departments of major Universities in Athens. The Greek version of the same sex marriage scale was used along with a brief demographics questionnaire. Correlation analysis showed that more tolerant attitudes toward same sex marriage were associated with religiosity, political self designation, gender, age and contact with LGBT individuals, indicating that those who have less tolerant attitudes toward same sex marriage tend to be men, individuals with higher levels of religiosity, older, not having a previous contact with LGBT individuals and politically conservative. Regression analysis revealed religiosity, political self designation, gender, age and personal contact with LGBT individuals to be independent predictors of attitudes toward same sex marriage.



To Tell or not to Tell? Parents' Reluctance to Talking About Conceiving Their Children Using Medically Assisted Reproduction

Abstract

While more and more researchers are investigating the effects of disclosing conceptions achieved through heterologous fertilization, even couples who use homologous medically-assisted reproduction (MAR) often do not tell their relatives and children how they conceived, possibly because they find it embarrassing. The present study explores the perception of stigma, and the reticence of Italian couples resorting to homologous MAR when speaking about conception. Interviews were conducted with 30 participants recruited through a fertility clinic at a public hospital in northern Italy, and through social media and snowball sampling. Content analysis was used to identify respondents' various attitudes to talking about their MAR experience. Their reluctance to tell their relatives and children about their conceiving experience may reflect, but also perpetuate the social stigma associated with in vitro fertilization. Further research and scientific dissemination campaigns are needed to emphasize the importance of normalizing and sharing these experiences within the family—addressing not only heterologous, but also homologous MAR—especially in the more traditional cultural and legal settings, such as Italy.



Risk Factors Related to Cognitive Distortions Toward Women and Moral Disengagement: A Study on Sex Offenders

Abstract

Violence against women is a heterogeneous phenomenon worldwide. In order to better understand this phenomenon, it is also necessary to study the offenders against women. Therefore, the present study investigates, in the light of risk factors, the individual and social characteristics (related to adolescence), the moral disengagement strategies and cognitive distortions of 120 sex offenders detained in Italian jails. We administered the semi-structured interview for data collection regarding family, social and medical histories and the manner in which the deviant act was carried out, the Moral Disengagement Scale, and the Vindictive Rape Attitude Questionnaire to investigate the presence of cognitive distortions toward women. Results show important risk factors in the genesis of moral disengagement strategies in the offenders: the use of substances and being institutionalized in their past. In addition, through a multiple regression model, we noticed how education levels represent a negative predictor of cognitive distortions towards women and the attribution of blame to a positive predictor. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.



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