Κυριακή, 12 Μαΐου 2019

Immunopathology

Transcriptional control of macrophage polarisation in type 2 diabetes

Abstract

Type-2 diabetes (T2D) is considered today as an inflammatory disease. Inflammatory processes in T2D are orchestrated by macrophage activation in different organs. Macrophages undergo classical M1 pro-inflammatory or alternative M2 anti-inflammatory activation in response to tissue microenvironmental signals. These subsets of macrophages are characterised by their expression of cell surface markers, secreted cytokines and chemokines. Transcriptional regulation is central to the polarisation of macrophages, and several major pathways have been described as essential to promote the expression of specific genes, which dictate the functional polarisation of macrophages. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge of transcriptional control of macrophage polarisation and the role this plays in development of insulin resistance.



Correction to: The pathogenicity of Th17 cells in autoimmune diseases

Unfortunately, an error occurred in the following passus of the article. The word "receptor" was missing in the sentence "Because T cells do not express GM-CSF receptor [41], GM-CSF affects non-T cells."



Pathogenicity of acquired immunity in human diseases


A new therapeutic target: the CD69-Myl9 system in immune responses

Abstract

CD69 is an activation marker on leukocytes. Early studies showed that the CD69+ cells were detected in the lung of patients with asthmatic and eosinophilic pneumonia, suggesting that CD69 might play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of such inflammatory diseases, rather than simply being an activation marker. Intensive studies using mouse models have since clarified that CD69 is a functional molecule regulating the immune responses. We discovered that Myosin light chain 9, 12a, 12b (Myl9/12) are ligands for CD69 and that platelet-derived Myl9 forms a net-like structure (Myl9 nets) that is strongly detected inside blood vessels in inflamed lung. CD69-expressing activated T cells attached to the Myl9 nets can thereby migrate into the inflamed tissues through a system known as the CD69-Myl9 system. In this review, we summarize the discovery of the CD69-Myl9 system and discuss how this system is important in inflammatory immune responses. In addition, we discuss our recent finding that CD69 controls the exhaustion status of tumor-infiltrating T cells and that the blockade of the CD69 function enhances anti-tumor immunity. Finally, we discuss the possibility of CD69 as a new therapeutic target for patients with intractable inflammatory disorders and tumors



Treg cells in autoimmunity: from identification to Treg-based therapies

Abstract

Regulatory (Treg) cells are key regulators of inflammation and important for immune tolerance and homeostasis. A major progress has been made in the identification and classification of Treg cells. Due to technological advances, we have gained deep insights in the epigenetic regulation of Treg cells. The use of fate reporter mice allowed addressing the functional consequences of loss of Foxp3 expression. Depending on the environment Treg cells gain effector functions upon loss of Foxp3 expression. However, the traditional view that Treg cells become necessarily pathogenic by gaining effector functions was challenged by recent findings and supports the notion of Treg cell lineage plasticity. Treg cell stability is also a major issue for Treg cell therapies. Clinical trials are designed to use polyclonal Treg cells as therapeutic tools. Here, we summarize the role of Treg cells in selected autoimmune diseases and recent advances in the field of Treg targeted therapies.



CD8 + T cell exhaustion

Abstract

CD8+ T cells are important for the protective immunity against intracellular pathogens and tumor. In the case of chronic infection or cancer, CD8+ T cells are exposed to persistent antigen and/or inflammatory signals. This excessive amount of signals often leads CD8+ T cells to gradual deterioration of T cell function, a state called "exhaustion." Exhausted T cells are characterized by progressive loss of effector functions (cytokine production and killing function), expression of multiple inhibitory receptors (such as PD-1 and LAG3), dysregulated metabolism, poor memory recall response, and homeostatic proliferation. These altered functions are closely related with altered transcriptional program and epigenetic landscape that clearly distinguish exhausted T cells from normal effector and memory T cells. T cell exhaustion is often associated with inefficient control of persisting infections and cancers, but re-invigoration of exhausted T cells with inhibitory receptor blockade can promote improved immunity and disease outcome. Accumulating evidences support the therapeutic potential of targeting exhausted T cells. However, exhausted T cells comprise heterogenous cell population with distinct responsiveness to intervention. Understanding molecular mechanism of T cell exhaustion is essential to establish rational immunotherapeutic interventions.



Epigenetic regulation of T helper cells and intestinal pathogenicity

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are characterized by relapsing and remitting chronic intestinal inflammation. Previous studies have demonstrated the contributions of genetic background, environmental factors (food, microbiota, use of antibiotics), and host immunity in the development of IBDs. More than 200 genes have been shown to influence IBD susceptibility, most of which are involved in immunity. The vertebrate immune system comprises a complex network of innate and adaptive immune cells that protect the host from infection and cancer. Dysregulation of the mutualistic relationship between the immune system and the gut environment results in IBD. Considering the fundamental role of epigenetic regulation in immune cells, epigenetic mechanisms, particularly in T helper (Th) cells, may play a major role in the complex regulation of mucosal immunity. Epigenetic regulation and dysregulation of Th cells are involved in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and its breakdown in IBD.



The immunopathology of lung fibrosis: amphiregulin-producing pathogenic memory T helper-2 cells control the airway fibrotic responses by inducing eosinophils to secrete osteopontin

Abstract

Fibrosis is defined as excessive deposition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the parenchyma of various organs, and sometimes leads to irreversible organ malfunction such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a fatal disorder of the lung. Chronic inflammatory stimuli induce fibrotic responses in various organs. Various immune cells, including T helper (Th) cells in the lung, protect the host from different harmful particles, including pathogenic microorganisms. However, the dysregulation of the function of these immune cells in the lung sometimes causes inflammatory diseases, such as lung fibrosis. In this review, we will introduce an outline of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenic fibrotic responses in the lung. We will also introduce the concept of the "Pathogenic Th population disease induction model," in which unique subpopulations of certain Th cell subsets control the pathology of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Finally, we introduce our recent findings, which demonstrate that amphiregulin-producing pathogenic memory Th2 cells control airway fibrosis through the osteopontin produced by inflammatory eosinophils. The identification of this new pathogenic Th cell population supports the concept of "Pathogenic Th population disease induction model", and will provide novel strategies for treating intractable diseases, including lung fibrosis.



T cell pathology in skin inflammation

Abstract

Forming the outer body barrier, our skin is permanently exposed to pathogens and environmental hazards. Therefore, skin diseases are among the most common disorders. In many of them, the immune system plays a crucial pathogenetic role. For didactic and therapeutic reasons, classification of such immune-mediated skin diseases according to the underlying dominant immune mechanism rather than to their clinical manifestation appears to be reasonable. Immune-mediated skin diseases may be mediated mainly by T cells, by the humoral immune system, or by uncontrolled unspecific inflammation. According to the involved T cell subpopulation, T cell–mediated diseases may be further subdivided into T1 cell–dominated (e.g., vitiligo), T2 cell–dominated (e.g., acute atopic dermatitis), T17/T22 cell–dominated (e.g., psoriasis), and Treg cell–dominated (e.g., melanoma) responses. Moreover, T cell–dependent and -independent responses may occur simultaneously in selected diseases (e.g., hidradenitis suppurativa). The effector mechanisms of the respective T cell subpopulations determine the molecular changes in the local tissue cells, leading to specific microscopic and macroscopic skin alterations. In this article, we show how the increasing knowledge of the T cell biology has been comprehensively translated into the pathogenetic understanding of respective model skin diseases and, based thereon, has revolutionized their daily clinical management.



The pathogenicity of Th17 cells in autoimmune diseases

Abstract

IL-17-producing T helper (Th17) cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Targeting the effector cytokines IL-17 and GM-CSF secreted by autoimmune Th17 cells has been shown to be effective for the treatment of the diseases. Understanding a molecular basis of Th17 differentiation and effector functions is therefore critical for the regulation of the pathogenicity of tissue Th17 cells in chronic inflammation. Here, we discuss the roles of proinflammatory cytokines and environmental stimuli in the control of Th17 differentiation and chronic tissue inflammation by pathogenic Th17 cells in humans and in mouse models of autoimmune diseases. We also highlight recent advances in the regulation of pathogenic Th17 cells by gut microbiota and immunometabolism in autoimmune arthritis.



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