Κυριακή, 14 Απριλίου 2019

Urban Health

Population Size Estimates of Street Children in Iran: Synthesis of Multiple Methods

Abstract

We used four methods (direct count, indirect count, wisdom of the crowd, and unique object multiplier) to map and estimate the population size of street children in six major cities in Iran in 2017. In aggregate for the six cities, the number of street children was estimated at 5296 (interquartile range [IQR] 4122-7071) using the median of the four methods. This corresponds to a rate of 16.3 (IQR 12.5–24.5) per 10,000 children age 5–18 years old, or 3.2 (IQR 2.4–5.3) per 10,000 total population. The total number for street children in the country is estimated at 26,000 (IQR 20,239–34,719) children. Results can help policy-makers advocate for resources, plan programs, and evaluate the reach of programs for street children. The maps created through the course of the population size estimation exercise can also guide outreach efforts to provide street children with health and social welfare services.



Perceptions of Neighborhood Environment, Sense of Community, and Self-Rated Health: an Age-Friendly City Project in Hong Kong

Abstract

To examine the relationships between perceptions of neighborhood environment, sense of community, and self-rated heath, we recruited 1798 people aged 60 years and older living in Hong Kong. With reference to the checklist of the essential features of age-friendly cities developed by the World Health Organization, perceptions of neighborhood environment were assessed using a questionnaire covering physical and social environmental domains, which mapped onto "outdoor spaces and buildings," "transportation," "housing," "social participation," "respect and social inclusion," "civic participation and employment," "communication and information," and "community support and health services." Sense of community was measured by the Brief Sense of Community Scale. Self-rated health was assessed by a single question. The relationships between these measures were analyzed using partial correlations, multivariate regression models, and path analyses. The mean age of the participants was 71.7 years; of which 54.3% were women. In multivariate regression models, perceived neighborhood environments were positively associated with sense of community and self-rated health. Among the domains of perceived neighborhood environment, "transportation" and "respect and social inclusion" were the physical and the social environmental domains most strongly associated with sense of community, respectively. In addition, sense of community accounted for part of the relationship between perceived neighborhood environments and self-rated health. The results of this study support the importance of perceived neighborhood environments for the sense that older person has of one's community, and self-rated health of older people which may be enhanced through the improvement of neighborhood environments.



Understanding Embodiment in Place-Health Research: Approaches, Limitations, and Opportunities

Abstract

Research on how place affects health continues to grow. Within the place-health research field, there is increasing focus on how place becomes embodied—i.e., how place-based social and environmental experiences and exposures "get under our skin" to affect physiological functioning and health. While much has been learned, currently favored place-embodiment research approaches present limitations that inhibit continued gains in understanding. This article presents a brief summary of place-health literature related to place-embodiment, highlighting common approaches. Core limitations are then discussed with an eye towards improving research going forward, highlighting mixed-method, spatially dynamic, and participatory intergenerational approaches as promising considerations.



Urban Heat Island and Future Climate Change—Implications for Delhi's Heat

Abstract

UrbClim, the urban climate model, is used for short- and long-term projections of climate for Delhi. The projections are performed for RCP8.5 using an ensemble of 11 GCM model outputs. Various heat stress indices were employed to understand the role of urban heat island (UHI) in influencing the present and future urban climate of the city. UHI intensity based on 5% warmest nights (TNp95) was 4.1 °C and exhibits negligible change over time. However, the impact of UHI on other heat stress indices is very strong. Combined hot days and tropical nights (CHT) that influenced 58–70% of the reference time frame are expected to rise to 68–77% in near-future and to 91–97% in far-future time periods. For reference time period, urban areas experience 2.3 more number of heat wave days (NHWD) than rural areas per summer season. This difference increases to 7.1 in short-term and 13.8 in long-term projections. Similar to this trend, frequency of heat waves (FHW) for urban areas is also expected to increase from 0.8 each summer season in reference time frame to 2.1 and 5.1 in short- and long-term projections. The urban-rural difference for duration of heat waves (DHW) appears to increase from 1.7 days in past to 2.3 and 2.2 days in future, illustrating that DHW for cities will be higher than non-urban areas at least by 2 days. The intensity of heat wave (IHW) for urban land uses increases from 40 °C in reference time frame to 45 °C in short-term projection to 49 °C in far future. These values for non-urban land use were 33 °C during the baseline time period and are expected to increase to 42 °C and 46 °C in near- and far-future time frames. The results clearly indicate the contribution of UHI effects in intensifying the impacts of extreme heat and heat stress in the city.



The Risk of Tuberculosis among Populations Living in Slum Settings: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Abstract

According to the WHO, half of the 10.4 million incident cases of TB in 2016 came from five countries where 20–50% of the urban population live in slums. Crowded living conditions and limited access to healthcare further contribute to the burden of TB in urban slums. This article aims to assess the odds of the burden of TB in urban slums through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Four electronic databases were searched for studies published between 1993 and 2017, with TB defined as at least one sputum smear-positive. The review followed the PRISMA protocol and information was extracted from articles for a full-text review to determine eligibility. Odds ratios were calculated for studies reporting sputum smear-positive TB cases in slum settings with national incidence as a comparison. Summary estimates were calculated using the random effects model (95% CI) and publication bias was assessed through funnel plot analysis. A quality assessment of included articles was also conducted. This meta-analysis was conducted across three categories: (1) across all 22 studies, (2) studies utilizing Active Case Finding, and (3) studies conducted in a high TB-HIV setting. The odds of sputum smear-positive TB were significantly higher across all three categories of analysis. Compared with national TB incidence rates, the combined odds ratio of smear-positive TB within slums was 2.96 (2.84, 3.09; p < 0.01). The combined odds ratio for smear-positive TB with active case finding across 15 studies was 2.85 (2.71, 2.99; p < 0.01). Among the 11 studies that reported incidence of smear-positive TB with prevalent TB-HIV coinfection in the community, the combined odds ratio for slum residents with the random effects model was 2.48 (2.34, 2.63; p < 0.01). Using Egger's funnel plot, publication bias was not detected within the three categories of analysis. The findings of this analysis indicate that the odds of developing TB are almost five times as great in urban slums. Reaching the most vulnerable and often overlooked groups in slums is crucial to achieving the SDGs and End TB Strategy by 2035.



Social Network Structures in African American Churches: Implications for Health Promotion Programs

Abstract

The prevalence of obesity among African Americans is higher than among other racial/ethnic groups. African American churches hold a central role in promoting health in the community; yet, church-based interventions have had limited impact on obesity. While recent studies have described the influence of social networks on health behaviors, obesity interventions informed by social network analysis have been limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 281 African American men and women from three churches in northeast urban cities in the USA. Data were collected on sociodemographic and clinical factors and anthropometrics. Using a social network survey applying a name generator, we computed network level metrics. Exponential random graph models (ERGM) were performed to examine whether each structural property found in the empirical (observed) networks occurred more frequently than expected by chance by comparing the empirical networks to the randomly simulated networks. Overall, church friendship networks were sparse (low density). We also found that while friendship ties were more reciprocated between dyads in church networks, and there were more tendencies for clustering of friendships (significant positive transitive closure) than in random networks, other characteristics such as expansiveness (number of actors with a great number of friends) did not differ from what would be expected by chance in random networks. These data suggest that interventions with African American churches should not assume a unitary network through which a single intervention should be used.



Using Index of Concentration at the Extremes as Indicators of Structural Racism to Evaluate the Association with Preterm Birth and Infant Mortality—California, 2011–2012

Abstract

Disparities in adverse birth outcomes for Black women continue. Research suggests that societal factors such as structural racism explain more variation in adverse birth outcomes than individual-level factors and societal poverty alone. The Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE) measures spatial social polarization by quantifying extremes of deprived and privileged social groups using a single metric and has been shown to partially explain racial disparities in black carbon exposures, mortality, fatal and non-fatal assaults, and adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth and infant mortality. The objective of this analysis was to assess if local measures of racial and economic segregation as proxies for structural racism are associated and preterm birth and infant mortality experienced by Black women residing in California. California birth cohort files were merged with the American Community Survey by zip code (2011–2012). The ICE was used to quantify privileged and deprived groups (i.e., Black vs. White; high income vs. low income; Black low income vs. White high income) by zip code. ICE scores range from − 1 (deprived) to 1 (privileged). ICE scores were categorized into five quintiles based on sample distributions of these measures: quintile 1 (least privileged)–quintile 5 (most privileged). Generalized linear mixed models were used to test the likelihood that ICE measures were associated with preterm birth or with infant mortality experienced by Black women residing in California. Black women were most likely to reside in zip codes with greater extreme income concentrations, and moderate extreme race and race + income concentrations. Bivariate analysis revealed that greater extreme income, race, and race + income concentrations increased the odds of preterm birth and infant mortality. For example, women residing in least privileged zip codes (quintile 1) were significantly more likely to experience preterm birth (race + income ICE OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.72–1.46) and infant mortality (race + income ICE OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.17–2.47) compared to women living in the most privileged zip codes (quintile 5). Adjusting for maternal characteristics, income, race, and race + income concentrations remained negatively associated with preterm birth. However, only race and race + income concentrations remained associated with infant mortality. Findings support that ICE is a promising measure of structural racism that can be used to address racial disparities in preterm birth and infant mortality experienced by Black women in California.



Personal Versus Group Experiences of Racism and Risk of Delivering a Small-for-Gestational Age Infant in African American Women: a Life Course Perspective

Abstract

The majority of studies investigating the relationship between racism/racial discrimination and birth outcomes have focused on perceived experiences of racism/racial discrimination directed at oneself (personal racism). However, evidence suggests individuals report with greater frequency racism/racial discrimination directed at friends, family members, or other members of their racial/ethnic group (group racism). We examined how much African American (AA) women report lifetime experiences of perceived racism or racial discrimination, both personal and group, varied by maternal age. We also investigated whether reports of personal and group racism/racial discrimination were associated with the risk of delivering a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant and how much maternal age in relation to developmental life stages (adolescence [≤ 18 years], emerging adulthood [19–24 years], and adulthood [≥ 25 years]) moderated the relationship. Data stem from the Baltimore Preterm Birth Study, a hybrid prospective/retrospective cohort study that enrolled 872 women between March 2000 and July 2004 (analyzed in 2016–2017). Spline regression analyses demonstrated a statistically significant (p value for overall association < 0.001) and non-linear (p value = 0.044) relationship between maternal age and the overall racism index. Stratified analysis showed experiences of racism overall was associated with a higher odds ratio of delivering an SGA infant among AA women aged ≥ 25 years (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.02–2.08). The overall racism index was not associated with the SGA infant odds ratio for emerging adults (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.69–1.06) or adolescents (OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.66–1.28). Multiple aspects of racism and the intersection between racism and other contextual factors need to be considered.



Childbearing Motivations and Desires, Fertility Beliefs, and Contraceptive Use among Urban African-American Adolescents and Young Adults with STI Histories

Abstract

This study explored the influence of STI history on childbearing motivations, fertility beliefs, current childbearing desires, and contraception use among urban African-American adolescents and young adults (AYA). Secondary data were from the Neighborhood Influences on Adolescent and Young Adult Health (NIAAH) study, conducted from 2004 to 2007. Sample included 517 AYA ages 15–24 years (male: n = 199, female: n = 318). Linear and logistic regression models examined gender differences in childbearing motivations (CBM) and desires, fertility beliefs, condom, and contraception use. Logistic regression models were constructed to examine age, pregnancy history, and STI fertility knowledge as potential confounders. AYA men (3.29) and AYA women (3.23) had similar CBM mean scores. AYA women had more positive CBM and used condoms less. Condom use was not associated with CBM among AYA men (OR = 0.71, p = 0.069). Low beliefs about fertility (OR = 0.52, p = 0.003) and prior pregnancy (OR = 5.27, p = 0.002) were associated with current childbearing desires among AYA women. AYA men's low fertility beliefs were only associated with current childbearing desires (OR = 0.56, p = 0.044). AYA men reported more contraception use (67.46 vs. 55.04%), especially with no partner pregnancy history (OR = 0.26, p = 0.017). Younger men (15 to 18 years old) reported more contraception or condom use compared to older AYA men (19–25 years old) (OR = 0.40, p = 0.016). Young men reporting a partner's prior pregnancy used fewer condoms or contraception (OR = 0.23, p = 0.028). STI history did not influence CBM in this sample of urban youth. Prior pregnancy experiences and chronological age, however, were important milestones shaping proximal motivations and desires to bear children, beliefs about fertility, and contraception behaviors.



Separate and Sick: Residential Segregation and the Health of Children and Youth in Metropolitan Statistical Areas

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to better understand residential segregation and child/youth health by examining the relationship between a measure of Black-White residential segregation, the index of dissimilarity, and a suite of child and youth health measures in 235 U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). MSAs are urban areas with a population of 50,000 or more and adjacent communities that share a high degree of economic and social integration. MSAs are defined by the Office of Management and Budget. Health-related measures included child mortality (CDC WONDER), teen births (NCHS natality data), children in poverty (SAIPE program), and disconnected youth (Measure of America). Simple linear regression and two-level hierarchical linear regression models, controlling for income, total population, % Black, and census region, examined the association between segregation and Black health, White health, and Black-White disparities in health. As segregation increased, Black children and youth had worse health across all four measures, regardless of MSA total and Black population size. White children and youth in small MSAs with large Black populations had worse levels of disconnected youth and teen births with increasing segregation, but no associations were found for White children and youth in other MSAs. Segregation worsened Black-White health disparities across all four measures, regardless of MSA total and Black population size. Segregation adversely affects the health of Black children in all MSAs and White children in smaller MSAs with large Black populations, and these effects are seen in measures that span all of childhood. Residential segregation may be an important target to consider in efforts to improve neighborhood conditions that influence the health of families and children.



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