Κυριακή, 14 Απριλίου 2019

Mental Health

Beliefs and Attitudes About the Dissemination and Implementation of Internet-Based Self-Care Programs in a Large Integrated Healthcare System

Abstract

Behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) are online programs or mobile applications that deliver behavioral health interventions for self-care. The dissemination and implementation of such programs in U.S. healthcare systems has not been widely undertaken. To better understand these phenomena, we explored perspectives on BIT deployment in the Veterans Health Administration. Interviews from 20 providers, administrators, and policy makers were analyzed using qualitative methods. Eight themes were identified including the use of traditional healthcare delivery models, strategies for technology dissemination and implementation, internet infrastructure, leadership, health system structure, regulations, and strategic priorities. This research suggests policy, funding, and strategy development initiatives to promote the implementation and dissemination of BITs.



Treatment of Veterans with Psychiatric Diagnoses Nationally in the Veterans Health Administration: A Comparison of Service Delivery by Mental Health Specialists and Other Providers

Abstract

Patients with psychiatric disorders are treated by both mental health specialists and non-specialists. We use national data from the Veterans Health Administration to evaluate changing proportions of patients seen exclusively by non-specialists during the study year (FY 2012) limit as well as differences in socio-demographic, clinical and service use characteristics. There has been a five-fold increase in veterans with mental disorders seen by non-specialists over 20 years from 7 to 38%, findings similar to those in non-VA settings. Veterans treated by mental health specialists were younger, more likely to have been homeless and disabled, and had more severe and more numerous psychiatric diagnoses. There is a need to maintain specialty services and to strengthen non-specialty care through education and research.



Policy Levers to Promote Access to and Utilization of Children's Mental Health Services: A Systematic Review

Abstract

Policies have potential to help families obtain behavioral healthcare for their children, but little is known about evidence for specific policy approaches. We reviewed evaluations of select policy levers to promote accessibility, affordability, acceptability, availability, or utilization of children's mental and behavioral health services. Twenty articles met inclusion criteria. Location-based policy levers (school-based services and integrated care models) were associated with higher utilization and acceptability, with mixed evidence on accessibility. Studies of insurance-based levers (mental health parity and public insurance) provided some evidence for affordability outcomes. We found no eligible studies of workforce development or telehealth policy levers, or of availability outcomes.



Policy Impacts of the Australian National Perinatal Depression Initiative: Psychiatric Admission in the First Postnatal Year

Abstract

This paper helps to quantify the impact of the Australian National Perinatal Depression Initiative (NPDI) on postnatal inpatient psychiatric hospitalisation. Based on individual hospital admissions data from New South Wales and Western Australia, we found that the NPDI reduced inpatient psychiatric hospital admission by up to 50% [0.9% point reduction (95% CI 0.70–1.22)] in the first postnatal year. The greatest reduction was observed for adjustment disorders. The NPDI appears to be associated with fewer post-birth psychiatric disorders hospital admissions; this suggests earlier detection of psychiatric disorders resulting in early care of women at risk during their perinatal period.



Effectiveness of Health and Social Service Networks for Severely Mentally Ill Patients' Outcomes: A Case–Control Study

Abstract

Mental health and social care services networks aim to provide patients with continuity of care and support their recovery. There is, however, no conclusive evidence of their effectiveness. Since 2011, Belgium has been implementing a nation-wide reform of mental health care by commissioning service networks. Using a case–control design, we assessed the reform's effectiveness for continuity of care, social integration, quality of life, and re-hospitalization for 1407 patients from 23 networks. Greater reform exposure was associated with a slight improvement in continuity of care, but not with other outcomes. We concluded that service networks alone do not affect patient-level outcomes.



Work Stress and Satisfaction with Leadership Among Nurses Encountering Patient Aggression in Psychiatric Care: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study

Abstract

We examined the associations between work stress (job strain, effort-reward imbalance), perceived job insecurity, workplace social capital, satisfaction with leadership and working hours in relation to the likelihood of encountering patient aggression (overall exposure, assaults on ward property, mental abuse, physical assaults). We conducted a cross-sectional survey for nurses (N = 923) in 84 psychiatric units. Both work stress indicators were associated higher odds for different types of patient aggression. Poorer satisfaction with leadership was associated with higher odds for overall exposure to patient aggression. These findings were robust to adjustment for several nurse and work characteristics, and unit size.



"We're All in this Together": Peer-specialist Contributions to a Healthy Lifestyle Intervention for People with Serious Mental Illness

Abstract

This qualitative study explored peer specialists' contributions to a healthy lifestyle intervention for obese/overweight individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) living in supportive housing. Intervention participants, peer specialists, and supervisors were interviewed and a grounded model emerged from the data identifying essential interpersonal attributes of the peer specialist-participant relationship. Peer specialists' disclosure of their own experiences making health behaviors changes was critical for building participants' motivation and ability to try lifestyle changes. Findings can inform peer specialist training and practice standards and facilitate the expansion of peer-delivered interventions to improve the physical health of people with SMI.



Implementing Evidence Based Practices for Children's Mental Health: A Case Study in Implementing Modular Treatments in Community Mental Health

Abstract

There is strong enthusiasm for utilizing implementation science in the implementation of evidence-based programs in children's community mental health, but there remains work to be done to improve the process. Despite the proliferation of implementation frameworks, there is limited literature providing case examples of overcoming implementation barriers. This article examines whether the use of three implementations strategies, a structured training and coaching program, the use of professional development portfolios for coaching, and a progress monitoring data system, help to overcome barriers to implementation by facilitating four implementation drivers at a community mental health agency. Results suggest that implementation is a process of recognizing and adapting to both predictable and unpredictable barriers. Furthermore, the use of these implementation strategies is important in improving implementation outcomes.



Developing a Strategy to Embed Peer Support into Mental Health Systems

Abstract

Globally, health care systems stakeholders have encouraged health systems change that reflects recovery oriented practice. The implementation and integration of Peer Support Workers is one such strategy. Yet, what factors should be considered in the implementation of these roles? How can services be integrated effectively? Recent literature will be reviewed to explore current knowledge about peer support, and offer considerations for effective implementation of peer supports into current health care systems.



Help-Seeking by Parental Caregivers of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Dual Diagnosis

Abstract

This study examined the roles of stigma and of enabling factors in help-seeking by parental caregivers of individuals with intellectual disabilities and dual diagnosis. Questionnaires were completed by 195 family caregivers. Lower family stigma was related to higher personal enabling factors (e.g. knowledge about services and previous experience in seeking help), which in turn was related to higher help-seeking behaviors. Higher professional enabling factors (e.g. attitude of the professional, services in the vicinity) were related to higher intentions to seek help, which were related to higher help-seeking behaviors. Professionals can help families achieve a greater sense of self-efficacy in their own help-seeking process by providing them with knowledge about services and facilitating a more positive experience in the process.



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