Τετάρτη, 17 Απριλίου 2019

Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience

Klotho deficiency affects the spine morphology and network synchronization of neurons

Publication date: Available online 13 April 2019

Source: Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience

Author(s): Hai T. Vo, Mary L. Phillips, Jeremy H. Herskowitz, Gwendalyn D. King

Abstract

Klotho-deficient mice rapidly develop cognitive impairment and show some evidence of the onset of neurodegeneration. However, it is impossible to investigate the long-term consequences on the brain because of the dramatic shortening of lifespan caused by systemic klotho deficiency. As klotho expression is downregulated with advancing organismal age, understanding the mechanisms of klotho action is important for developing novel strategies to support healthy brain aging. Previously, we reported that klotho-deficient mice show enhanced long-term potentiation prior to the onset of cognitive impairment. To inform this unusual phenotype, herein, we examined neuronal structure and in vitro synaptic function. Our results indicate that klotho deficiency causes the population of dendritic spines to shift towards increased head diameter and decreased length consistent with mature, mushroom type spines. Multi-electrode array recordings from klotho-deficient neurons show increased synchronous firing and activity changes reflective of increased neuronal network activity. Supplementation of the neuronal growth media with recombinant shed klotho corrected some but not all of the activity changes caused by KL deficiency. Last, in vivo we found that klotho-deficient mice have a decreased latency to induced seizure activity. Together these data show that klotho-deficient memory impairments are underpinned by structural and functional changes that may preclude ongoing normal cognition.



An FTLD-associated SQSTM1 variant impacts Nrf2 and NF-κB signalling and is associated with reduced phosphorylation of p62

Publication date: Available online 4 April 2019

Source: Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience

Author(s): A. Foster, D. Scott, R. Layfield, S.L. Rea

Abstract

Elevated oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD). In response to oxidative stress, the Nrf2 transcription factor activates protective antioxidant genes. A critical regulator of Nrf2 is the inhibitory protein Keap1, which mediates Nrf2 degradation. In response to cellular stress an interaction between Keap1 and SQSTM1/p62 (p62), a signalling adaptor protein, allows for increased Nrf2 signalling as it escapes degradation. Mutations in SQSTM1 (encoding p62) are linked with ALS-FTLD. Previously, two ALS-FTLD-associated p62 mutant proteins within the Keap1 interacting region (KIR) of p62 were found to be associated with decreased Keap1-p62 binding and Nrf2 activation. Here we report that a non-KIR domain FTLD-associated variant of p62 (p.R110C), affecting a residue close to the N-terminal PB1 oligomerisation domain, also reduces Keap1-p62 binding in cellulo and thereby reduces Nrf2 activity in reporter assays. Further, we observed that expression of p.R110C increased NF-κB activation compared with wild type p62. Altered signalling appeared to be linked with reduced phosphorylation of p62 at Serine residues −349 and −403. Our results confirm that ALS-FTLD mutations affecting multiple domains of p62 result in a reduced stress response, suggesting that altered stress signalling may directly contribute to the pathology of some ALS-FTLD cases.



Small molecules as therapeutic drugs for Alzheimer's disease

Publication date: April 2019

Source: Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, Volume 96

Author(s): Darryll M.A. Oliver, P. Hemachandra Reddy

Abstract

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a central protagonist of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Mitochondrial dysfunction stems from various factors including mitochondrial DNA damage and oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species, membrane and ionic gradient destabilization, and interaction with toxic proteins such as amyloid beta (Aβ). Therapeutic drugs such as cholinesterase and glutamate inhibitors have proven to improve synaptic neurotransmitters, but do not address mitochondrial dysfunction. Researchers have demonstrated that oxidative damage may be reduced by increasing endogenous antioxidants, and/or increasing exogenous antioxidants such as vitamin C & E, beta-carotene and glutathione. Nonetheless, as AD pathology intensifies, endogenous antioxidants are overwhelmed, and exogenous antioxidants are unable to reach neuronal mitochondria as they are blocked by the blood brain barrier. Current therapeutic methods however include novel usage of lipophilic phosphonium cation bound to antioxidants, to effect neuronal mitochondria targeted activity. Mitochondria targeted MitoQ, MitoVitE, MitoTempo, MitoPBN and MCAT concentrate within mitochondria where they scavenge free-radicals, and augment mitochondrial dysfunction. Additional molecules include Szeto-Schiller (SS) peptides which target stability of the inner mitochondrial membrane, and DDQ molecule capable of improving bioenergetics and reduce mitochondrial fragmentation. This article discusses advantages and disadvantages of small molecules, their ability to mitigate Aβ induced damage, and ability to ameliorate synaptic dysfunction and cognitive loss.



Growth and excitability at synapsin II deficient hippocampal neurons

Publication date: April 2019

Source: Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, Volume 96

Author(s): Heidi Matos, Raymond Quiles, Rodrigo Andrade, Maria Bykhovskaia

Abstract

Synapsins are neuronal phosphoproteins that fine-tune synaptic transmission and suppress seizure activity. Synapsin II (SynII) deletion produces epileptic seizures and overexcitability in neuronal networks. Early studies in primary neuronal cultures have shown that SynII deletion results in a delay in synapse formation. More recent studies at hippocampal slices have revealed increased spontaneous activity in SynII knockout (SynII(−)) mice. To reconcile these observations, we systematically re-examined synaptic transmission, synapse formation, and neurite growth in primary hippocampal neuronal cultures. We find that spontaneous glutamatergic synaptic activity was suppressed in SynII(−) neurons during the initial developmental epoch (7 days in vitro, DIV) but was enhanced at later times (12 and18 DIV). The density of synapses, transmission between connected pairs of neurons, and the number of docked synaptic vesicles were not affected by SynII deletion. However, we found that neurite outgrowth in SynII(−) neurons was suppressed during the initial developmental epoch (7 DIV) but enhanced at subsequent developmental stages (12 and18 DIV). This finding can account for the observed effect of SynII deletion on synaptic activity. To test whether the observed phenotype resulted directly from the deletion of SynII we expressed SynII in SynII(−) cultures using an adeno-associated virus (AAV). Expression of SynII at 2 DIV rescued the SynII deletion-dependent alterations in both synaptic activity and neuronal growth. To test whether the increased neurite outgrowth in SynII(−) observed at DIV 12 and18 represents an overcompensation for the initial developmental delay or results directly from SynII deletion we performed "late expression" experiments, transfecting SynII(−) cultures with AAV at 7 DIV. The late SynII expression suppressed neurite outgrowth at 12 and 18 DIV to the levels observed in control neurons, suggesting that these phenotypes directly depend on SynII. These results reveal a novel developmentally regulated role for SynII function in the control of neurite growth.



Taxifolin protects neurons against ischemic injury in vitro via the activation of antioxidant systems and signal transduction pathways of GABAergic neurons

Publication date: April 2019

Source: Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, Volume 96

Author(s): M.V. Turovskaya, S.G. Gaidin, V.N. Mal'tseva, V.P. Zinchenko, E.A. Turovsky

Abstract

Cerebral blood flow disturbances lead to the massive death of brain cells. The death of >80% of cells is observed in hippocampal cell cultures after 40 min of oxygen and glucose deprivation (ischemia-like conditions, OGD). However, there are some populations of GABAergic neurons which are characterized by increased vulnerability to oxygen-glucose deprivation conditions. Using fluorescent microscopy, immunocytochemical assay, vitality tests and PCR-analysis, we have shown that population of GABAergic neurons are characterized by a different (faster) Ca2+ dynamics in response to OGD and increased basal ROS production under OGD conditions. A plant flavonoid taxifolin inhibited an excessive ROS production and an irreversible cytosolic Ca2+ concentration increase in GABAergic neurons, preventing the death of these neurons and further excitation of a neuronal network; neuroprotective effect of taxifolin increased after incubation of 24 h and correlated with increased expression of antiapoptocic and antioxidant genes Stat3 Nrf-2 Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Ikk2, and genes coding for AMPA and kainate receptor subunits; in addition, taxifolin decreased expression of prooxidant enzyme NOS and proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β.



Neurotoxic effects of MPTP on mouse cerebral cortex: Modulation of neuroinflammation as a neuroprotective strategy

Publication date: April 2019

Source: Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, Volume 96

Author(s): Mariana Oliveira Mendes, Alexandra Isabel Rosa, Andreia Neves Carvalho, Maria João Nunes, Pedro Dionísio, Elsa Rodrigues, Daniela Costa, Sara Duarte-Silva, Patrícia Maciel, Cecília Maria Pereira Rodrigues, Maria João Gama, Margarida Castro-Caldas

Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder, mainly characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the Substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and by the presence of intracellular inclusions, known as Lewy bodies. Despite SNpc being considered the primary affected region in PD, the neuropathological features are confined solely to the nigro-striatal axis. With disease progression other brain regions are also affected, namely the cerebral cortex, although the spreading of the neurologic damage to this region is still not completely unraveled.

Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is an endogenous bile acid that has been shown to have antioxidant properties and to exhibit a neuroprotective effect in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mice model of PD. Moreover, TUDCA anti-inflammatory properties have been reported in glial cells, making it a prominent therapeutic agent in PD.

Here, we used C57BL/6 mice injected with MPTP in a sub-acute paradigm aiming to investigate if the neurotoxic effects of MPTP could be extended to the cerebral cortex. In parallel, we evaluated the anti-oxidant, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of TUDCA. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms elicited by TUDCA were further dissected in microglia cells.

Our results show that MPTP leads to a decrease of ATP and activated AMP-activated protein kinase levels in mice cortex, and to a transient increase in the expression of antioxidant downstream targets of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf-2), and parkin. Notably, MPTP increases pro-inflammatory markers, while down-regulating the expression of the anti-inflammatory protein Annexin-A1 (ANXA1). Importantly, we show that TUDCA treatment prevents the deleterious effects of MPTP, sustains increased levels of antioxidant enzymes and parkin, and most of all negatively modulates neuroinflammation and up-regulates ANXA1 expression. Additionally, results from cellular models using microglia corroborate TUDCA modulation of ANXA1 synthesis, linking inhibition of neuroinflammation and neuroprotection by TUDCA.



Modulation of Cav2.3 channels by unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) – Candidate mechanism for UCB-induced neuromodulation and neurotoxicity

Publication date: April 2019

Source: Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, Volume 96

Author(s): Walid Albanna, Jan Niklas Lüke, Gerrit Alexander Schubert, Maxine Dibué-Adjei, Konstantin Kotliar, Jürgen Hescheler, Hans Clusmann, Hans-Jakob Steiger, Daniel Hänggi, Marcel A. Kamp, Toni Schneider, Felix Neumaier

Abstract

Elevated levels of unbound unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) can lead to bilirubin encephalopathy and kernicterus. In spite of a large number of studies demonstrating UCB-induced changes in central neurotransmission, it is still unclear whether these effects involve alterations in the function of specific ion channels. To assess how different UCB concentrations and UCB:albumin (U/A) molar ratios affect neuronal R-type voltage-gated Ca2+channels, we evaluated their effects on whole-cell currents through recombinant Cav2.3 + β3 channel complexes and ex-vivo electroretinograms (ERGs) from wildtype and Cav2.3-deficient mice. Our findings show that modestly elevated levels of unbound UCB (U/A = 0.5) produce subtle but significant changes in the voltage-dependence of activation and prepulse inactivation, resulting in a stimulation of currents activated by weak depolarization and inhibition at potentials on the plateau of the activation curve. Saturation of the albumin binding capacity (U/A = 1) produced additional suppression that became significant when albumin was omitted completely and might involve a complete loss of channel function.

Acutely administered UCB (U/A = 0.5) has recently been shown to affect transsynaptic signaling in the isolated vertebrate retina. The present report reveals that sustained exposure of the murine retina to UCB significantly suppresses also late responses of the inner retina (b-wave) from wildtype compared to Cav2.3-deficient mice. In addition, recovery during washout was significantly more complete and faster in retinae lacking Cav2.3 channels.

Together, these findings show that UCB affects cloned and native Cav2.3 channels at clinically relevant U/A molar ratios and indicate that supersaturation of albumin is not required for modulation but associated with a loss of channel functional that could contribute to chronic neuronal dysfunction.



Interleukin-16 inhibits sodium channel function and GluA1 phosphorylation via CD4- and CD9-independent mechanisms to reduce hippocampal neuronal excitability and synaptic activity

Publication date: March 2019

Source: Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, Volume 95

Author(s): Shehla U. Hridi, Aimée J.P.M. Franssen, Hui-Rong Jiang, Trevor J. Bushell

Abstract

Interleukin 16 (IL-16) is a cytokine that is primarily associated with CD4+ T cell function, but also exists as a multi-domain PDZ protein expressed within cerebellar and hippocampal neurons. We have previously shown that lymphocyte-derived IL-16 is neuroprotective against excitotoxicity, but evidence of how it affects neuronal function is limited. Here, we have investigated whether IL-16 modulates neuronal excitability and synaptic activity in mouse primary hippocampal cultures. Application of recombinant IL-16 impairs both glutamate-induced increases in intracellular Ca2+ and sEPSC frequency and amplitude in a CD4- and CD9-independent manner. We examined the mechanisms underlying these effects, with rIL-16 reducing GluA1 S831 phosphorylation and inhibiting Na+ channel function. Taken together, these data suggest that IL-16 reduces neuronal excitability and synaptic activity via multiple mechanisms and adds further evidence that alternative receptors may exist for IL-16.



Sympathomimetics regulate neuromuscular junction transmission through TRPV1, P/Q- and N-type Ca2+ channels

Publication date: March 2019

Source: Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, Volume 95

Author(s): Anna Zaia Carolina Rodrigues, Zhong-Min Wang, María Laura Messi, Osvaldo Delbono

Abstract

Increasing evidence indicates that, first, the sympathetic nervous system interacts extensively with both vasculature and skeletal muscle fibers near neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and, second, its neurotransmitter, noradrenaline, influences myofiber molecular composition and function and motor innervation. Since sympathomimetic agents have been reported to improve NMJ transmission, we examined whether two in clinical use, salbutamol and clenbuterol, affect the motor axon terminal via extracellular Ca2+ and molecular targets, such as TRPV1 and P/Q- and N-type voltage-activated Ca2+ channels. Electrophysiological recordings in ex-vivo preparations of peroneal nerves and lumbricalis muscles from young adult mice focused on spontaneous miniature end-plate potentials and singly and repetitively evoked end-plate potentials. Adding one dose of salbutamol or clenbuterol to the nerve/muscle preparation or repeatedly administering salbutamol to a mouse for 4 weeks increased spontaneous and evoked synaptic vesicle release but induced a steep decline in EPP amplitude in response to repetitive nerve stimulation. These effects were mediated primarily by ω-agatoxin IVA-sensitive P/Q-type and secondarily by ω-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive N-type Ca2+ channels. Presynaptic arvanil-sensitive TRPV1 channels seem to regulate Ca2+ at the motor neuron terminal at rest, while putative presynaptic β-adrenergic receptors may mediate sympathomimetic and catecholamine effects on presynaptic Ca2+channels during NMJ activation.



Norepinephrine control of ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus glucoregulatory neurotransmitter expression in the female rat: Role of monocarboxylate transporter function

Publication date: March 2019

Source: Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, Volume 95

Author(s): A.S.M. Hasan Mahmood, Santosh K. Mandal, Khaggeswar Bheemanapally, Mostafa M.H. Ibrahim, K.P. Briski

Abstract

The ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) is a critical component of the neural circuitry that regulates glucostasis. Astrocyte glycogen is a vital reserve of glucose and its oxidizable metabolite L-lactate. In hypoglycemic female rats, estradiol-dependent augmentation of VMN glycogen phosphorylase (GP) protein requires hindbrain catecholamine input. Research here investigated the premise that norepinephrine (NE) regulation of VMN astrocyte metabolism shapes local glucoregulatory neurotransmitter signaling in this sex. Estradiol-implanted ovariectomized rats were pretreated by intra-VMN administration of the monocarboxylate transporter inhibitor alpha-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (4CIN) or vehicle before NE delivery to that site. NE caused 4CIN-reversible reduction or augmentation of VMN glycogen synthase and phosphorylase expression. 4CIN prevented NE stimulation of gluco-inhibitory (glutamate decarboxylase65/67) and suppression of gluco-stimulatory (neuronal nitric oxide synthase) neuron marker proteins. These outcomes imply that effects of noradrenergic stimulation of VMN astrocyte glycogen depletion on glucoregulatory transmitter signaling may be mediated, in part, by glycogen-derived substrate fuel provision. NE control of astrocyte glycogen metabolism may involve down-regulated adrenoreceptor (AR), e.g. alpha1 and alpha2, alongside amplified beta1 AR and estrogen receptor-beta signaling. Noradrenergic hypoglycemia was refractory to 4CIN, implying that additional NE-sensitive VMN glucoregulatory neurochemicals may be insensitive to monocarboxylate uptake. Augmentation of circulating free fatty acids by combinatory NE and 4CIN, but not NE alone implies that acute hypoglycemia induced here is an insufficient stimulus for mobilization of these fuels, but is adequate when paired with diminished brain monocarboxylate fuel availability.



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