## Τετάρτη, 17 Απριλίου 2019

### Environmental Science and Pollution Research

Remediation of cobalt-polluted soil after application of selected substances and using oat ( Avena sativa L.)

### Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of soil application of manure, clay, charcoal, zeolite, and calcium oxide in remediation of soil polluted with cobalt (0, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320 mg Co kg−1 of soil). The following were determined: weight of harvested plants as well as the content of cobalt in grain, straw, and roots of oat. In addition, tolerance index (Ti), cobalt bioconcentration (BCF), translocation (TF), and transfer (TFr) coefficients were derived. In the series without amendments, the increasing doses of cobalt had a significant effect by decreasing the yields of oat grain and straw and the mass of its roots. Also, lower tolerance index values were noted in the objects polluted with cobalt, especially with its highest dose. The application of manure had the strongest effect on increasing the mass of particular organs of the test plant, while the application of charcoal led to a significant decrease in this respect. The application of all substances to the soil, and especially manure and calcium oxide, resulted in higher tolerance index Ti values. The growing contamination of soil with cobalt caused a significant increase in the content of this element in oat and in the values of the translocation coefficient, in contrast to the effects noted with respect to the bioconcentration and transfer coefficients. All the substances applied to soil reduced the content of cobalt and its bioconcentration in oat straw, in opposition to grain and roots, limited its translocation, but elevated the transfer of this element from soil to plants. Soil contamination with cobalt promoted the accumulation of lead and copper in grain, cadmium, lead, nickel, zinc, manganese, and iron in straw, as well as cadmium, nickel, zinc, and manganese in oat roots. As the cobalt dose increased, the content of other trace elements in oat organs either decreased or did not show any unambiguous changes. Of all the tested substances, the strongest influence on the content of trace elements was produced by calcium oxide in straw and roots and by zeolite in roots, whereas the weakest effect was generated by manure in oat grain. Oat is not the best plant for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with cobalt.

### Abstract

Radiolytic oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DClP) in aqueous solutions demonstrated that ·OH predominantly adds to the unsubstituted positions of the aromatic ring and that elimination of chloride at the 4 position is important because the –OH group enhances the electron density at this position, which is favorable for the electrophilic reactions. The total yield obtained was 0.540 μmol/J. Radiation-induced degradation of 2,4-DClP was conducted in oxygen-free aqueous solutions (0.1, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.7 mmol/dm3), saturated with N2O, and aerated and under irradiation at low and high doses. The results demonstrate that the largest degradation occurred in oxygen-free solutions due to oxidation (·OH) and reduction reactions (H· and $${\mathrm{e}}_{\mathrm{aq}}^{-}$$ ) and attack of the $${\mathrm{e}}_{\mathrm{aq}}^{-}$$ at the ipso position of –Cl, producing HCl. The degradation was affected to a large extent by the concentration and to a lesser extent by the presence or absence of oxygen in which the 2,4-DClP solution was irradiated. At concentrations less than 1 mmol/dm3, 2,4-DClP was degraded in the solution at an absorbed dose level of 1 kGy. At higher doses, the product concentrations increased to up to 30% of the dose required for the total degradation of 2,4-DClP; then, they decreased. A graph plotting the logarithm of the relative concentration as a function of the dose shows a linear correlation, which indicates that the radiolytic degradation followed pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. The oxidation was followed by the chemical oxygen demand (COD). COD decreases when the solute concentration increases. This fact has a dependence on the presence or absence of oxygen too.

Setting-up a Real-Time Air Quality Forecasting system for Serbia: a WRF-Chem feasibility study with different horizontal resolutions and emission inventories

### Abstract

In this paper, the influence of the horizontal model grid size and anthropogenic gridded emissions on the air quality forecast in Serbia was analyzed using the online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). For that purpose, six simulations were performed. The model horizontal grid size was 20 × 20 km, 10 × 10 km, and 5 × 5 km. Two anthropogenic gridded emission inventories with different grid sizes were used, the global RETRO (REanalysis of the TROpospheric chemical composition) and the EMEP (The European Monitoring and Evaluation Program) for each model horizontal grid size. The modeled O3, NO2, and PM10 concentrations in all six simulations were compared with the measured hourly data at the Serbian Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) stations and an EMEP station during August 2016. The analysis shows that the influence of the model grid size is larger on PM10 than on the O3 and NO2 concentration. The concentration of O3 and PM10 has a similar dependence on the emissions and the model grid size, while NO2 has a larger dependence on the emission than on the model grid size. The simulation with the 5 × 5 km grid size and the EMEP anthropogenic emissions has optimal performance compared with the measured concentration. In this optimal simulation, the modeled O3 concentrations overestimated the measured values at 3 stations and underestimated the measured values at 2 stations. At most stations, the modeled NO2 concentrations underestimated the measured values. The modeled PM10 concentrations highly underestimated the measured values at all stations.

Air pollution survey across the western Mediterranean Sea: overview on oxygenated volatile hydrocarbons (OVOCs) and other gaseous pollutants

### Abstract

Despite the Mediterranean Sea basin is among the most sensitive areas over the world for climate change and air quality issues, it still remains less studied than the oceanic regions. The domain investigated by the research ship Minerva Uno cruise in Summer 2015 was the Tyrrhenian Sea. An overview on the marine boundary layer (MBL) concentration levels of carbonyl compounds, ozone (O3), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) is reported. The north-western Tyrrhenian Sea samples showed a statistically significant difference in acetone and SO2 concentrations when compared to the south-eastern ones. Acetone and SO2 values were higher in the southern part of the basin; presumably, a blend of natural (including volcanism) and anthropogenic (shipping) sources caused this difference. The mean acetone concentration reached 5.4 μg/m3; formaldehyde and acetaldehyde means were equal to 1.1 μg/m3 and 0.38 μg/m3, respectively. Maximums of 3.0 μg/m3 for formaldehyde and 1.0 μg/m3 for acetaldehyde were detected along the route from Civitavecchia to Fiumicino. These two compounds were also present at levels above the average in proximity of petrol-refining plants on the coast; in fact, formaldehyde reached 1.56 μg/m3 and 1.60 μg/m3, respectively, near Milazzo and Augusta harbors; meanwhile, acetaldehyde was as high as 0.75 μg/m3 at both sites. The levels of formaldehyde agreed with previously reported measurements over Mediterranean Sea and elsewhere; besides, a day/night trend was observed, confirming the importance of photochemical formation for this pollutant. According to this study, Mediterranean Sea basin, which is a closed sea, was confirmed to suffer a high anthropic pressure impacting with diffuse emissions, while natural contribution to pollution could come from volcanic activity, particularly in the south-eastern Tyrrhenian Sea region.

Sewage waste water application improves the productivity of diverse wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars on a sandy loam soil

### Abstract

Water stress due to climate change is an emerging threat to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) productivity in the arid regions of the world which will impact the future food security. In this scenario, the investigations are needed to check the feasibility of alternate sources of irrigation water to fulfill the irrigation demands of the crops in the arid regions. This 2-year study was aimed to investigate the influence of three irrigation sources (sewage water, canal water, and underground water) on the productivity of 10 wheat cultivars under an arid climate of Layyah, Pakistan. The results indicated that the number of fertile tillers, grains per spike, 1000-grain weight, and grain yield varied from 114 to 168 m−2, 34.8 to 53.3, 33.4 to 38.4 g, and 2.68 to 4.05 Mg ha−1, respectively in various wheat cultivars. The highest fertile tillers (168 m−2) were recorded in cultivar Gold-2016 followed by Aas-2011 (155 cm), AARI-2011 (153 m−2), and Ujala-2016 (150 m−2). The highest 1000-grain weight of 38.4 g was recorded in cultivar NARC-2016. The grains per spike (53.3) were the highest in cultivar Ujala-2016. The grain yields were the highest in cultivars Ujala-2016 (4.05 Mg ha−1) and Gold-2016 (3.91 Mg ha−1). The highest grain yield of 3.71 Mg ha−1 was recorded with sewage water irrigation against the grain yield of 3.18 and 2.91 Mg ha−1 in canal and underground water irrigation, respectively. There existed a strong co-relation of fertile tillers and grains per spike with the grain yield of wheat. Application of sewage water also enhanced the total nitrogen, extractable potassium, and available phosphorous in soil. In crux, the cultivation of recently bread wheat cultivars (viz. Ujala-2016, Gold-2016) and the irrigation of field with sewage water in the absence of canal water might be a viable option to boost wheat productivity under arid regions. A range of genetic variability existed for different traits in the cultivars; therefore, these can be used to breed wheat cultivars to be used for sewage water cultivation.

Production and characterization of bio-mix fuel produced from the mixture of raw oil feedstock, and its effects on performance and emission analysis in DICI diesel engine

### Abstract

Bio-mix is a fuel derived from the raw mixture of different non-edible oils to enhance the saturation level. In this study, raw oil mixture was transesterified to form bio-mix methyl ester (BMME). Fuel properties of BMME was measured and results showed that saturated fatty acids (SFA), cetane number (CN), and oxidation stability (OS) were increased, whereas density, viscosity, HHV, flash point, iodine number, and acid number were decreased for BMME as compared to individual biodiesels. Brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) of BMME was higher than diesel fuel but similar to individual biodiesel, while brake thermal efficiency (BTE) was lower than diesel fuel but higher than the individual biodiesel. (NOx) and CO2 emission of BMME was found lower (approximately 20%); meanwhile, smoke opacity and CO emission biodiesel increased compared to diesel fuel, whereas (HC) emission of BMME was lower at low load condition but it is increased at high load. Bio-mix fuel could be the good replacement of diesel fuel.

Comparison and optimization of different methods for Microcystis aeruginosa 's harvesting and the role of zeta potential on its efficiency

### Abstract

This study has compared the harvesting efficiency of four flocculation methods, namely, induced by pH, FeCl3, AlCl3 and chitosan. No changes were observed on M. aeruginosa cells. Flocculation assays performed at pH 3 and 4 have shown the best harvesting efficiency among the pH-induced tests, reaching values above 90% after 8 h. The adjustment of zeta potential (ZP) to values comprised between − 6.7 and − 20.7 mV enhanced significantly the settling rates using flocculant agents, being FeCl3 the best example where increments up to 88% of harvesting efficiency were obtained. Although all the four methods tested have presented harvesting efficiencies above 91% within the first 8 h after the optimization process, the highest performance was obtained using 3.75 mg L−1 of FeCl3, which allowed reaching 92% in 4 h.

Aminosilane-grafted spherical cellulose nanocrystal aerogel with high CO 2 adsorption capacity

### Abstract

In this study, the cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) obtained by acid hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) are customized by suspension to obtain a spherical CNC hydrogel. The N-(2-aminoethyl) (3-amino-propyl) methyldimethoxyansile (AEAPMDS) preparation was grafted to spherical CNC hydrogel using a water phase heat treatment. Finally, aerogel samples were obtained by tert-butanol replacement and freeze-drying. The test results confirmed that the aminosilane was grafted on CNC. Electron micrographs and N2 sorption isotherms showed that the pores of the aerogel were partially blocked due to the introduction of AEAPMDS, and the specific surface area was decreased. Due to the presence of chemisorption, the amount of CO2 adsorbed at a pressure of 3 bar by the modified aerogel (2.63 mmol/g) was greatly improved compared with the unmodified aerogel (0.26 mmol/g), and the adsorption results were fit well by the Langmuir model. Thus, our experiments provided the opportunity to develop a new CO2 absorbent material.

How production-based and consumption-based emissions accounting systems change climate policy analysis: the case of CO 2 convergence

### Abstract

Much of the existing research analyses on emissions and climate policy are dominantly based on emissions data provided by production-based accounting (PBA) system. However, PBA provides an incomplete picture of driving forces behind these emission changes and impact of global trade on emissions, simply by neglecting the environmental impacts of consumption. To remedy this problem, several studies propose to consider national emissions calculated by consumption-based accounting (CBA) systems in greenhouse gas (GHG) assessments for progress and comparisons among the countries. In this article, we question the relevance of PBA's dominance. To this end, we, firstly, try to assess and compare PBA with CBA adopted in greenhouse gas emissions accounting systems in climate change debates on several issues and to discuss the policy implications of the choice of approach. Secondly, we investigate the convergence patterns in production-based and consumption-based emissions in 35 Annex B countries for the period between 1990 and 2015. This study, for the first time, puts all these arguments together and discusses possible outcomes of convergence analysis by employing both the production- and consumption-based CO2 per capita emissions data. The empirical results found some important conclusions which challenge most of the existing CO2 convergence studies.

Toxicological effects of toxic metals (cadmium and mercury) on blood and the thyroid gland and pharmacological intervention by vitamin C in rabbits

### Abstract

Cadmium and mercury are non-biodegradable toxic metals that may cause many detrimental effects to the thyroid gland and blood. Vitamin C has been found to be a significant chain-breaking antioxidant and enzyme co-factor against metal toxicity and thus make them less available for animals. The current study was performed to find the effect of individual metals (cadmium and mercury), their co-administration, and the ameliorative effects of vitamin C on some of the parameters that indicate oxidative stress and thyroid dysfunction. Cadmium chloride (1.5 mg/kg), mercuric chloride (1.2 mg/kg), and vitamin C (150 mg/kg of body weight) were orally administered to eight treatment groups of the rabbits (1. control; 2. Vit C; 3. CdCl2; 4. HgCl2; 5. Vit C + CdCl2; 6. Vit C + HgCl2; 7. CdCl2 + HgCl2, and 8. Vit C + CdCl2 + HgCl2). After the biometric measurements of all experimental rabbits, biochemical parameters viz. triidothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and triglycerides were measured using commercially available kits. The results exhibited significant decline (p < 0.05) in mean hemoglobin, corpuscular hemoglobin, packed cell volume, T3 (0.4 ± 0.0 ng/ml), and T4 (26.3 ± 1.6 ng/ml) concentration. While, TSH (0.23 ± 0.01 nmol/l) and triglyceride (4.42 ± 0.18 nmol/l) were significantly (p < 0.05) increased but chemo-treatment with Vit C reduces the effects of Cd, Hg, and their co-administration but not regained the values similar to those of controls. This indicates that Vit C had a shielding effect on the possible metal toxicity. The Cd and Hg also found to accumulate in vital organs when measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The metal concentration trend was observed as follows: kidney > liver > heart > lungs. It was concluded that Cd and Hg are toxic and tended to bioaccumulate in different organs and their toxic action can be subdued by vitamin C in biological systems.