Τρίτη, 9 Απριλίου 2019

Anatomy Pathology

Sun Apr 07, 2019 21:43
 Atypical pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia showing rapid growth of the breast: Report of a case

Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a benign lesion manifesting as myofibroblastic proliferation and anastomosing slit‐like spaces. Atypical PASH is an extremely rare lesion characterized by cytological alteration of myofibroblast, presenting as myofibroblastic sarcoma arising from PASH. To our knowledge, only one other case has been reported since the first report of Rosen. We present a case of atypical PASH. A 39‐year‐old female presented with a round, elastic hard, painless mass in the left breast. Mammography and ultrasonography revealed no definitive sign of malignancy. Core needle biopsy report was suggestive of atypical PASH. Five months later, the mass had grown rapidly with pain. Considering the clinicopathological features, excision was performed. Pathological examination revealed the spindle cells proliferation in collagenous stroma. The spindle cell involved the adipose tissue and lobules and lined peudoangiomatous spaces. These cells exhibited marked cytological atypia and mitotic activity. Immunohistochemically, these spindle cells were positive for SMA, CD10, and bcl‐2, and negative for podoplanin, p63, CD31, ERG and cytokeratins. The final diagnosis was atypical PASH. She is tumor‐free on 12 months follow‐up. The nature of atypical PASH remains unknown. Further studies are required for a clear definition, a new histological entity and diagnostic criteria.

Sun Apr 07, 2019 19:12
 Rapid and extensive intrahepatic metastatic recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma with very small portal vein tumor thrombus after surgery and sustained virological response of HCV with direct‐acting antivirals
Tue Apr 09, 2019 14:34
 The possible alleviating effect of saffron on chlorpyrifos experimentally induced cardiotoxicity: Histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study

Publication date: Available online 9 April 2019

Source: Acta Histochemica

Author(s): Hanaa Attia Khalaf, Ahmed Abd El-Rahman El-Mansy

Abstract
Introduction

Pesticides are responsible for many occupational health hazards among farmers in developing countries. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the broad-spectrum organophosphorus (OP) insecticides used for agricultural, domestic and industrial purposes.

Aim of the work

The present study was designed to examine the effects of CPF on cardiac muscles and to evaluate the possible protective role of crocin using biochemical and histological methods with the intention to recognize the molecular tools of its probable cardioprotective effects.

Materials and methods

Thirty-six adult male albino rats were used in this study and were divided into 4 equal groups (9 rats each): negative control group, positive control group, CPF treated group and CPF & crocin treated group. The heart was removed for histological and immunohistochemical studies.

Results

Stained sections of cardiac muscle fibers of group III with H&E revealed remarkable histological changes in the form of disorganization of the fibers with increase in the interstitial spaces between these fibers. Congested dilated blood capillaries could be observed with extravasation of the red blood cells leading to interstitial hemorrhage. Focal areas of mononuclear cellular infiltration could be seen in the interstitial tissue. A number of cardiac fibers achieved pale acidophilic vacuolated sarcoplasm while others achieved dark homogenous acidophilic sarcoplasm. Some nuclei were peripherally situated and pyknotic while others were centrally situated and encircled with halos. Apparently increased masses of collagen fibers among the cardiac muscle fibers and around the congested dilated blood vessels with the presence of focal parts of extensive collagen fiber deposition were noticed in Mallory-stained sections of group III. Strong positive immunoreactions in the endomysium and perimysium of the cardiac fibers, along with the walls of blood capillaries and in interstitial cells, could be detected in immunohistochemical staining sections of group III with vimentin antibody. Immunoreactivity to caspase 3 was higher in the sarcoplasm of the cardiac fibers of group III compared to that of control group. A highly significant decrease in the cardiac level of SOD and CAT; however, a highly significant increase in MDA level was noted between the control groups and CPF treated group.

Additionally, there was a significant improvement of the chemical and histological representations of group IV, and these improvement pictures were toward the normal.

Conclusion

The study concludes that crocin can alleviate the toxic effect of chlorpyrifos caused by oxidative stress on cardiac muscle.

Mon Apr 08, 2019 17:08
 Pyruvate kinase M2 contributes to cell growth in gastric cancer via aerobic glycolysis

Publication date: Available online 7 April 2019

Source: Pathology - Research and Practice

Author(s): He Li, Huiyu Xu, Rui Xing, Yuanming Pan, Wenmei Li, Jiantao Cui, Youyong Lu

Abstract

Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) serves as a key enzyme that promotes aerobic glycolysis. This study investigated the function of PKM2 in tumor growth and maintenance in gastric cancer (GC). Histological staining was applied to detect PKM2 expression in GC tissues. PCR and western blotting were used to measure PKM2 expression in GC cells. PKM2 was knocked down to examine the biological behavior of tumors, glycometabolism, and apoptosis. PKM2 was upregulated in GC tissues (65%, 34/52) compared with that in adjacent normal tissues (27%, 10/37). Moreover, PKM2 knockdown inhibited proliferation of BGC823 GC cells, and elevated PKM2 levels were associated with poor survival of GC patients. Furthermore, knockdown of PKM2 altered the biological behavior of BGC823 cells through induction of apoptosis. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that inhibition of PKM2 could represent a novel strategy for gastric cancer treatment.

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