Τρίτη, 12 Μαρτίου 2019

Minimal Access Surgery

Is laparoscopic approach for wandering spleen in children an option?
Gratiana Oana Alqadi, Amulya K Saxena

Journal of Minimal Access Surgery 2019 15(2):93-97

Aim: Wandering spleen present generally as an acute abdomen after twisting of the splenic vascular pedicle. This study aimed to review the literature with regard to the management and outcomes of the laparoscopy in children with wandering spleen. Methods: The literature was reviewed for articles on PubMed with regard to the following search terms 'laparoscopy', 'wandering', 'spleen' and 'children'. The inclusion criteria included article only in the paediatric age group of 0–16. Articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria were excluded from the study. Results: The PubMed search from 1998 to 2016 identified 15 articles. There were 20 children with an age range from 2 to 16 years who underwent the laparoscopic procedure for wandering spleen. The median age was 8 years. Associated conditions were present in 45% of patients: gastric volvulus (n = 3), torsion of the distal pancreas (n = 3), splenic cyst (n = 2), mental retardation and myotonic dystrophy (n = 1). In two cases, the spleen was twisted around the pedicle and was non-viable, and therefore, a splenectomy was performed. Other 18 cases were managed by splenopexy using a 3–5-port technique. An extraperitoneal pocket was created using a balloon device in five patients. Fixation of the spleen was performed using a mesh in 10 cases and omentum in three cases. In one case, additional support was created by plicating the phrenicocolic ligament. Simultaneous gastropexy was performed in four patients. There were no post-operative complications. Conclusions: Wandering spleen is a rare entity and in the paediatric age group 10% cannot be salvaged for which splenectomy is the only option. Of the 90% that can be pexied, the literature has favoured the application of meshes followed by the extraperitoneal pockets and omental pouch. Laparoscopic splenopexy is feasible, with no reported conversions or complications. 


The surgical outcome of minimally invasive pharyngo-laryngo-oesophagectomy in prone position
Mariko Ogino, Yuma Ebihara, Akihiro Homma, Kimitaka Tanaka, Yoshitsugu Nakanishi, Toshimichi Asano, Takehiro Noji, Yo Kurashima, Soichi Murakami, Toru Nakamura, Takahiro Tsuchikawa, Keisuke Okamura, Toshiaki Shichinohe, Satoshi Hirano

Journal of Minimal Access Surgery 2019 15(2):98-102

Purpose: Pharyngo-laryngo-oesophagectomy (PLE) which is mainly indicated for cervical oesophageal cancer or synchronous double cancer of the thoracic oesophagus and the pharynx or larynx, is extremely invasive. Since minimally invasive oesophagectomy (MIE) using video-assisted thoracic surgery has become popular recently, the procedure can be adopted to PLE. Moreover, the use of the prone position (PP) in MIEs has been increasing recently because technical advantages and fewer post-operative complications were reported. To assess the validity of PP, this study compared surgical outcomes of minimally invasive PLE (MIPLE) in PP with that in the left lateral decubitus position (LLDP). Patients and Methods: This study enrolled consecutive 15 patients that underwent MIPLE with LLDP (n = 7) or PP (n = 8) between January 1996 and October 2016. The patients' background characteristics, operative findings and post-operative complications were examined. Results: Eligible diseases are 5 cases of cervical oesophageal cancer, 9 cases of synchronous double cancer of the thoracic oesophagus and head and neck and 1 case of cervical oesophageal recurrence of the head-and-neck cancer. The patients' background characteristics were not significantly different. During surgery, thoracic blood loss was significantly lower in PP than in LLDP (P = 0.0487). Other operative findings and post-operative complications were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions: In MIPLE, the PP could reduce blood loss due to the two-lung ventilation under artificial pneumothorax and was associated with lower surgical stress than LLDP. 


Laparoscopic ureterolithotomy: Experience of 60 cases from a developing world hospital
Mudassir Maqbool Wani, Abdul Munnan Durrani

Journal of Minimal Access Surgery 2019 15(2):103-108

Objective: Laparoscopic ureterolithotomy, which has been quoted to have a success rate equivalent to open ureterolithotomy for uretric stones, can be performed transperitoneally and retroperitoneally. The aim of the present study is to report our experience with laparoscopic retroperitoneal ureterolithotomy, its results and advantages in the current era of minimally invasive surgery in a developing country. Patients and Methods: It was a prospective study carried from May 2010 to December 2012. 60 patients diagnosed with upper and middle uretric calculi, with sizes more than 1 cm and with value of more than 1500 hu on CT Urography ,underwent laparoscopic retroperitoneal ureterolithotomy. Results: All patients underwent retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy successfully. The mean operative time was 64.53 min. The mean blood loss was 39.83 ml. 3 patients had minor intra-operative complications which were tackled on table. Post-operative complications developed in 3 patients, all minor. There were no major complications. The removal of drain was at (2.7 days). Mean hospital stay was of 3.3 days. Patients reported to their routine activities in 1.78 weeks. During follow-up 3 months later, CT urography revealed normal ureter in all cases. Conclusion: Laparoscopic retroperitoneal ureterolithotomy has low rate of conversion to open surgery and an acceptable overall complication rates. In selected patients with impacted, hard, large ureteral stones, which are likely to cause diffi-culty in endo-urological procedures, laparoscopic ureterolithotomy is a reason-able treatment option. 


Short-term outcomes of minimally invasive surgery for patients presenting with suspected gallbladder cancer: Report of 8 cases
Gerald Zeng, Nan Zun Teo, Brian K. P. Goh

Journal of Minimal Access Surgery 2019 15(2):109-114

Introduction: Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for gallbladder cancer (GBCa) has traditionally been discouraged, with limited studies reporting on its outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term outcomes of MIS for patients with GBCa or suspected GBCa. Methods: A retrospective study of 8 consecutive patients who underwent MIS for GBCa by a single surgeon over a 22-month period between 2015 and 2017. Results: Three patients underwent robotic surgery, while five underwent conventional laparoscopic surgery. Four patients presented with histologically proven GbCa detected incidentally after cholecystectomy. All 4 patients underwent resection of Segment 4b/5. Of these, 3 underwent hilar lymphadenectomy and 1 underwent hilar lymph node sampling. Four patients presenting with suspected GBCa underwent upfront extended cholecystectomy. Two patients who had malignancy on frozen section underwent hilar lymphadenectomy. The median operation time was 242.5 (range, 165–530) min, and the median blood loss was 175 (range, 50–700) ml. The median post-operative hospital stay was 3.5 (range, 2–8) days. There were no open conversion, post-operative morbidities and mortalities. Six had histologically proven GBCa. Five were T3 and one had T2 cancers. Conclusions: The results of the present study confirm the short-term safety and feasibility of MIS for patients with GBCa, as all eight patients underwent successful MIS with no major morbidity or mortality. Further studies with larger patient cohorts with long-term follow-up are needed to determine the oncologic outcomes and the definitive role of MIS in treating GBCa. 


Changes of serum and peritoneal inflammatory mediators in laparoscopic radical resection for right colon carcinoma
Pengcheng Zhu, Wenzhong Miao, Feng Gu, Chungen Xing

Journal of Minimal Access Surgery 2019 15(2):115-118

Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of laparoscopic and open operation on serum and peritoneal inflammatory mediators in patients with right colon carcinoma. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 patients were randomly divided into laparoscopic group (n = 50) and open group (n = 50). The age, sex, operation time, operation blood loss, post-operative Dukes stage, time to first passage of flatus and post-operative hospital stay were recorded. The levels of hypersensitive C reactive protein (hsCRP) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum and abdominal exudate were measured by ELISA at the time of pre-operative 2 h and post-operative 6 h and 24 h. Results: There was no significant difference in age, sex, Dukes stage and pre-operative inflammatory mediators between the two groups (P > 0.05). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, time to first passage of flatus and post-operative hospital stay were significantly better in laparoscopic group than those in open operation group. At 6 h and 24 h after operation, the levels of hsCRP and TNF-α in serum and abdominal exudate in laparoscopic group were significantly lower than those in open operation group. Conclusions: Laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of right colon carcinoma has the advantages of fewer traumas, less systemic and local inflammatory response, rapider post-operative recovery and shorter hospital stay. It is worthy of clinical application. 


Applicability of transoral endoscopic parathyroidectomy through vestibular route for primary sporadic hyperparathyroidism: A South Indian experience
P R K Bhargav, M Sabaretnam, V Amar, N Vimala Devi

Journal of Minimal Access Surgery 2019 15(2):119-123

Introduction: Primary hyperparathyroidism is one of the most common endocrine disorders requiring surgical parathyroidectomy for its definitive treatment. Surgical exploration is traditionally performed through conventional open neck approach. A wide range of minimal access and minimally invasive endoscopic techniques (gas less and with gas) have been attempted in the past two decades. In this context, we evaluated the feasibility and safety of an innovative transoral endoscopic parathyroidectomy (EP) technique, which represents a paradigm shift in transluminal endocrine surgery. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study conducted at a tertiary care Endocrine Surgery Department in South India between May 2016 and August 2017. We employed a novel transoral, lower vestibular route for EP. All the clinical, investigative, operative, pathological and post-operative data were collected from our prospectively filled database. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 20.0 version. Operative Technique: Under inhalational general anaesthesia, access to the neck was obtained with 3 ports (central frenulotomy and two lateral port sites), dissected in subplatysmal plane and insufflated with 6 mm Hg CO2 for working space. Rest of surgical steps is similar to conventional open parathyroidectomy. Results: Out of the 38 hyperparathyroidism cases operated during the study, 12 (32%) were operated by this technique. Mean operative time was 112 ± 15 min (95–160). The post-operative course was uneventful with no major morbidity, hypocalcemia or recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. Cure and diagnosis were confirmed by >50% fall in intraoperative parathyroid hormone levels and histopathology (all were benign solitary adenomas). Conclusions: Through this study, we opine that this novel transoral vestibular route parathyroidectomy is a feasibly applicable approach for primary sporadic hyperparathyroidism, especially with solitary benign adenomas. 


Who profits from three-dimensional optics in endoscopic surgery? Analysis of manual tasks under two-dimensional/three-dimensional optic vision using a pelvic trainer model
Cornelius Jacobs, Frank Alexander Schildberg, Dieter Christian Wirtz, Philip Peter Roessler

Journal of Minimal Access Surgery 2019 15(2):124-129

Background: In endoscopic operations, direct binocular view, tissue sensation and depth perception get lost. It is still unclear whether the novel three-dimensional (3D) high-definition (HD) cameras are able to compensate the limited senses and how this affects the skill set of users with different endoscopic experience. This study aimed first to evaluate if the 3D technology improves depth perception, precision and space orientation as compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) HD technology. The second aim was to determine the 3D influence on participants with different endoscopic experience. Methods: A total of 24 participants of different experience levels performed three different tasks on a pelvic trainer using the same thoracoscopic unit in 2D and 3D modes. Results were statistically analysed using Student's t-test and Pearson's product–moment correlation. Results: Across all the participants, we found that 3D optic vision significantly reduced the needed time to perform a defined difficult task in comparison to 2D. This difference was less pronounced in participants with higher experience level. Participants with eyeglasses performed slower in both 2D and 3D in comparison to participants with normal vision. Only participants with normal vision could significantly improve their completion times with 3D optic vision. Conclusions: By testing the novel generation of 3D HD cameras, we could demonstrate that the 3D optic of these systems improves depth perception and space orientation for novices and experienced users and especially inexperienced users benefit from 3D optic. 


Diagnostic laparoscopy or selective non-operative management for stable patients with penetrating abdominal trauma: What to choose?
Oleh Yevhenovych Matsevych, Modise Zacharia Koto, Moses Balabyeki, Lehlogonolo David Mashego, Colleen Aldous

Journal of Minimal Access Surgery 2019 15(2):130-136

Background: Selective non-operative management (NOM) and diagnostic laparoscopy (DL) are well-accepted approaches in the management of stable patients with penetrating abdominal trauma (PAT). The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of early DL in stable asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients with PAT as opposed to NOM, a standard of care in this scenario. The secondary aim was to suggest possible indications for DL. Methods: Patients managed with DL or NOM over a 12-month period were included in this study. The age, gender, mechanism and location of injuries, trauma scores, haemodynamic and metabolic parameters, intraoperative findings and length of hospital stay (LOS) were recorded and correlated with outcomes. Results: Thirty-six patients were in the NOM group and 35 in the DL group. Stab wounds were more common. The most common location of injury was the anterior abdominal wall in the NOM group and the lower chest in the DL group. Computed tomography (CT) scan was performed more often in the NOM group (75% vs. 17.1%). The injury severity score (ISS), New ISS and PAT Index were higher in the DL group. Nearly 23 (66%) patients in the DL group had a penetration of the peritoneum, but no significant abdominal injuries. LOS in the NOM group was 2 days versus 3.1 days in the DL group. There were no missed injuries, complications or mortality. Conclusion: NOM is a preferred modality for minimally symptomatic stable patients. However, there is a risk of missed injuries and delayed treatment. DL accurately visualizes injuries, decreases unnecessary CT scans and avoids nontherapeutic laparotomies. 


End-stage renal disease is a risk factor for complex laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients waiting for renal transplantation
Sara Colozzi, Samuele Iesari, Giovanni Cianca, Quirino Lai, Luigi Bonanni, Francesco Pisani, Gianfranco Amicucci

Journal of Minimal Access Surgery 2019 15(2):137-141

Introduction: To date, there are no studies investigating whether laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is technically more complex in patients waiting for kidney transplant. The aim of this study is to create a user-friendly score to identify high-risk cases for complex LC integrating end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analysed 321 patients undergoing LC during the period 2014–2016. Two groups were compared: ESRD group (n = 25) versus control group (n = 296). Concerning statistical analysis, continuous variables were compared using Kruskal–Wallis' test, dummy variables with Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test when appropriate. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for complex LC. A backward conditional method was used to design the final model. Results: Seventy out of 321 (21.8%) cases were considered as complex, with a higher prevalence in the ESRD group (32.0 vs. 20.9%; P = 0.2). Using a multivariable logistic regression analysis, we formulated a score based on the independent risk factors for complex LC: 4×(previous cholecystitis) +5 × (previous ESRD) +1 × (age per decade) +2 × (previous open abdominal surgery). High-risk cases (score ≥ 10) were more commonly reported in the ESRD group (72.0 vs. 24.7%; P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Although several scores investigating the risk for complex LC have been proposed, none of them has focused on ESRD. This is the first series demonstrating that ESRD is an independent risk factor for technical complexity in LC. We developed a score to offer surgeons an extra tool for pre-operative evaluation of patients requiring LC. 


Gastrointestinal stromal tumours of stomach: Robot-assisted excision with the da Vinci Surgical System regardless of size and location site
Niccolò Furbetta, Matteo Palmeri, Simone Guadagni, Gregorio Di Franco, Desirée Gianardi, Saverio Latteri, Emanuele Marciano, Andrea Moglia, Alfred Cuschieri, Giulio Di Candio, Franco Mosca, Luca Morelli

Journal of Minimal Access Surgery 2019 15(2):142-147

Aims: The role of minimally invasive surgery of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) of the stomach remains uncertain especially for large and/or difficult located tumours. We are hereby presenting a single-centre series of robot-assisted resections using the da Vinci Surgical System (Si or Xi). Subjects and Methods: Data of patients undergoing robot-assisted treatment of gastric GIST were retrieved from the prospectively collected institutional database and a retrospective analysis was performed. Patients were stratified according to size and location of the tumour. Difficult cases (DCs) were considered for size if tumour was >50 mm and/or for location if the tumour was Type II, III or IV sec. Privette/Al-Thani classification. Results: Between May 2010 and February 2017, 12 consecutive patients underwent robot-assisted treatment of GIST at our institution. DCs were 10/12 cases (83.3%), of which 6/10 (50%) for location, 2/10 (25%) for size and 2/10 (25%) for both. The da Vinci Si was used in 8 patients, of which 6 (75%) were DC, and the da Vinci Xi in 4, all of which (100%) were DC. In all patients, excision was by wedge resection. All lesions had microscopically negative resection margins. There was no conversion to open surgery, no tumour ruptures or spillage and no intraoperative complications. Conclusion: Our experience suggests a positive role of the robot da Vinci in getting gastric GIST removal with a conservative approach, regardless of size and location site. Comparative studies with a greater number of patients are necessary for a more robust assessment. 


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