Τετάρτη, 13 Φεβρουαρίου 2019

Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit as potential antioxidant and antimicrobial agents
Hussah A Al-Shwyeh

Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences 2019 11(1):1-11

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is the most popular fruit in the Middle East and North Africa. It is consumed widely and has been used for traditional medicine purposes for a long time. The fruits are nutrient rich, containing dietary fibers, sugar, protein, vitamins, minerals, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds. Due to the presence of the phenolic compounds, date palm fruits are antioxidant rich with potent bioactivities against several bacterial pathogens. Therefore, on the basis of the available evidence as reviewed in this paper, it was found that date fruits are a good source of natural antioxidants, which can be used for the management of oxidative stress–related and infectious diseases.

Biosimilars in India; current status and future perspectives
Bikash R Meher, Sakthi Balan, Rashmi R Mohanty, Monalisa Jena, Smita Das

Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences 2019 11(1):12-15

Many key biologics are scheduled to lose their patent by the year 2020, which will provide the opportunity to other biopharmaceutical companies to develop the similar biologics. Biosimilar or similar biologic used has increased in the recent year following the approval of the first biosimilar in early 2000. India is one of the leading manufacturers of similar biologics. India has developed a new guideline in 2012 for the pre- and post-marketing approval of similar biologics.

High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis explores the potential antioxidative agents of Argyreia argentea ARN. EX CHOISY extract
Md. Nazim Uddin, Md. Atiar Rahman, Hemayet Hossain, Tanzir Ahmed Khan, Rehana Akter

Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences 2019 11(1):16-22

Background: Antioxidative properties of medicinal plants play the key role in plant defense mechanism. Argyreia argentea is an evergreen shrub which is used in the treatment of boils, gastric ulcers, tumor, marasmus, paralysis and spermatorrhea, rheumatoid arthritis, cold, painful sensation, and fever. Aims: This research investigates the phytochemical contents and antioxidative effects of optimized crude methanol extract of A. argentea. Materials and Methods: Crude methanol extract of A. argentea prepared in an optimized procedure has been analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography to quantitatively determine the phytochemical contents. Tannin content of the extract was determined by established method. The extract was also analyzed for in vitro antioxidative actions by spectrophotometric analysis using 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) method, N, N-dimethyl-1,4-diaminobenzene (DMPD) free radical scavenging method, superoxide radical scavenging method, and nitric oxide scavenging method. Results: The experimental results showed a high amount of catechin hydrate (348.62mg/100g of dry extract) and moderate amount of gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, and rutin hydrate in the methanol extract of A. argentea. Tannin content was found to be 29.66mg/g tannic acid equivalent. Scavenging effects expressed as inhibition concentrations (IC50) for ABTS assay, DMPD assay, superoxide assay, and NO assay were 1148.3 µg/mL ± 7.32 µmol ascorbic acid/g, 1017.68 µg/mL, 1116.89 µg/mL, 1835.23 µg/mL, respectively. All the values were compared with their respective standards. No β-carotene was detected in the extract. Conclusions: Use of A. argentea extract as a source of functional food as well as an antioxidative agent could be considered with further confirmation.

Cysteine supplementation mitigates the toxicity associated with antitumor therapy of Ehrlich's ascites fluid adsorbed over protein a containing Staphylococcus aureus cowan I†
Ashish S Verma, Anchal Singh, Priyadarshini Mallick, Premendra D Dwivedi

Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences 2019 11(1):23-32

Introduction: Previously, we have reported the amelioration of ad-AF induced hepatotoxicity with the exogenous supplementation of glutathione (GSH) without compromising the anti-tumor effect of ad-AF in ascites tumor model of mice with transplantable Ehrlich’s Ascites Tumor cells. Cellular uptake of glutathione (GSH) has its own limitations, therefore exogenous supplementation of L-cysteine (Cys) was tried to reduce the toxicity of ad-AF by providing –SH contents without compromising the anti-tumor property of adsorbed ascites fluid (ad-AF). Results: A significant increase in mean survival time (MST) of tumor bearing mice from 18.1 days to 32.9 days with exogenous supplementation of Cys was observed. Cys supplementation did not alter decline in body-weight gain, tumor cell counts as well as decrease in the viability of tumor cells in ascites tumor bearing animals. Similarly, Cys has been helpful to restore the hepatic –SH contents upto the levels of –SH content in tumor control group. The exogenous supplementation of Cys along with ad-AF has been helpful to restore the decline in the activities of phase-I and enhanced levels of glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The changes in the activities of different enzymes of phase-I and phase-II indicate the reduction in toxic insult induced by the therapeutic material (ad-AF). However, ad-AF treatment could not prevent tumor bearers from natural death due to tumor progression but significantly reduced the rate of tumor progression. Conclusions: Our study suggests that exogenous supplementation of Cys alongwith ad-AF could have a potential to be developed as a modality for the treatment of ascites tumor at least at experimental level.

Effect of Azadirachta indica crude bark extracts concentrations against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial pathogens
Shreelakshmidevi Singaravelu, Jaikumar Sankarapillai, Abilash Sasidharn Chandrakumari, Pammy Sinha

Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences 2019 11(1):33-37

Background: Today’s pharmaceutical markets are crowded with antibacterial agents, yet their toxicities and resistance are always contentious. Azadirachta indica is used in India as an age-old treatment for diverse medical conditions. This study was put forth to analyze the antibacterial action of A. indica bark extract on different bacterial pathogens. Materials and Methods: A. indica bark extract was prepared using Soxhlet extraction method. The bark extract of A. indica was screened for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion assay technique against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis. Ciprofloxacin (5 µg per disc) was used as positive control. All assays were carried out under strict aseptic precautions. All the concentrations included were duplicated, and the results obtained were the average of two independent experiments. Broth microdilution method was used to study the minimum inhibitory concentration of the bark extract of A. indica. Results: A. indica bark extract has shown antibacterial activity against all concentrations of bark extract, whereas antibacterial activity against S. aureus was observed at higher concentration of >500 µg/mL. The bark extract of A. indica showed zone of clearance against E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, and P. mirabilis at all concentrations. Zone of inhibition was observed in higher concentrations against S. aureus. Conclusion: This study has shown that A. indica bark extract has a potent antibacterial property against S. aureus, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, and P. mirabilis. Further isolation of bioactive compounds may lead to a new scope in the treatment of bacterial infections.

Apoptosis-mediated cytotoxic effect of Caralluma adscendens var. attenuata on colon (HT29) and Hepatic (HepG2) cancer cell lines
Mallela Vijaya Jyothi, Eranti Bhargav, Chilamakuru Naresh Babu, Kanala Somasekhar Reddy, Bhupalam Pradeep Kumar, Ravi Prasad Rao

Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences 2019 11(1):38-42

Introduction: Caralluma adscendens var. attenuata (Wight) Grav. and Mayur., a member of Apocynaceae, is a perennial stem succulent plant with wide distribution in tropics and subtropics of the world. This plant is reported for the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, triterpenes, and pregnane glycosides, and is known to have antidiabetic and antiulcerogenic properties. Materials and Methods: In this study, an attempt was made to identify antioxidant capacity and cytotoxic potential of n-hexane and aqueous methanolic extracts of total stem part of C. adscendens var. attenuata. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by total phenolic content assay, total flavonoid content assay, free radical scavenging activity, and reducing ability methods. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and nuclear staining methods for colorectal cancer cell lines HT29 and liver cancer cell lines HepG2. Results: MTT assay method has proven that the IC50 value was 10 μg/mL for both extracts, whereas for cisplatin standard, it was 2 μg/mL. By nuclear staining, the apoptotic cells were identified as oval masses with dark cytoplasm and dense green nuclear chromatin fragments indicating the programmed cell death for both n-hexane and aqueous methanolic extracts at the same concentration (10μg/mL). Conclusion: However, aqueous methanolic extract showed prominent cytotoxic potential against both cancer cell lines.

Comparison and evaluation of different seed extracts of Trachyspermum ammi for immunomodulatory effect on cell-mediated immunity through delayed-type hypersensitivity assay skin thickness method
Mohammad Jamshed Siddiqui, Adeel Aslam, Tanveer Khan

Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences 2019 11(1):43-48

Objective: The aim and objective of this study was to find the immunostimulant and immunomodulatory effect of T. ammi seed extracts. Methods: Seeds of T. ammi were extracted using three different solvents n-hexane, chloroform, and methanol by using soxhlet apparatus. To assess the immunomodulatory effect, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) assay method was used and by the DTH assay, the effect of T. ammi on the skin thickness of rats was estimated. To find the exact dose for administration, acute toxicity test was performed using crude methanolic extract at a dose of 400, 800, 1600, and 3200mg/kg. After acute toxicity test, 500mg/kg dose was determined as safe for therapeutic effect and immunomodulatory effect was evaluated at this dose. Dose of 500mg/kg was administered to Wistar rats daily for 14 days and skin thickness of rats was measured at 24, 48, and 72h. Results: Results were obtained from six groups of rats, which were positive control group, negative control group, and the groups receiving the test drugs. Standard drug was the combination of sodium selenite, vitamin E, and sodium chloride and it showed more positive results as compared to that of test drug. Furthermore, among the three extracts, methanol extract showed more effectiveness on skin thickness. Conclusion: There was a meaningful difference was observed between the skin thickness of rats which shows that T. ammi have good immunomodulatory as well as immunostimulant activity.

Development and validation of liquid chromatography method for determination of glimepiride in presence of (Vimto®) soft drinks in rats: application to pharmacokinetics studies
Mohammed Hamad, Areej Rahhal, Wael Abu Dayyih, Eyad Mallah, Alice Abu Dayyih, Zainab Zakaria, Tawfiq Arafat

Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences 2019 11(1):49-59

Context: Diet and beverages are thought to have notable effects on drugs. Recently, this relationship has received significant consideration. Aims: To develop and validate a simple, rapid, and sensitive method for the determination of glimepiride in rat serum. This will be performed using high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Potential pharmacokinetic interactions between glimepiride and the soft drink, Vimto, will also be investigated in the serum of experimental rats. Materials and Methods: HPLC-MS/MS was constructed and clarithromycin was used as an internal standard. Results: The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, stability, and system suitability parameters. The method was found to be satisfactory and suitable for the determination of glimepiride. The precision of glimepiride was high (coefficient of variation, CV% <15%), the accuracy over all 3 days of validation was within the accepted criteria. Glimepiride peak serum concentration (Cmax) was 126.01ng/mL and was reached within 1h (Tmax) of administration. Mean area under curve (AUC) was 964.70ng/mL and was reached within 24h of administration. The Vimto soft drink significantly (P < 0.050) reduced glimepiride peak serum concentration to 57.87ng/mL and was reached within 2h of administration. AUC was significantly reduced to 335.04 ng*h/mL (P < 0.050). Conclusion: Glimepiride pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax and AUC were significantly affected by the Vimto soft drink. Therefore, this study developed a simple, rapid, and sensitive method for validation and determination of the effects of soft drinks on drugs using the LC-MS/MS method.

Antioxidant potential of Solanum nigrum aqueous leaves extract in modulating restraint stress-induced changes in rat's liver
Syed K Zaidi, Shakeel A Ansari, Shams Tabrez, Muhammad I Naseer, Moyad J Shahwan, Naheed Banu, Muhammad H Al-Qahtani

Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences 2019 11(1):60-68

Introduction: This study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of crude extract of Solanum nigrum leaves and its active constituents as treatment against restraint stress in rat’s liver. Methods: For this purpose, male albino Wistar rats were treated with crude extract of leaves and its alkaloid and flavonoid fractions both before and after 6 h of acute restraint stress. Prooxidant status of rat liver was assessed by determining the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Results: Six hours of restraint stress generated oxidative stress in rat’s liver resulted in a significant rise in the level of the aforementioned liver enzymes. On the other hand, SOD, CAT, and GST enzymatic activities showed a significant decline in their level. The administration of crude leaves extract, both before and after stress exposure, significantly prevented the rise in the level of liver enzymes and reverted the activities of studied biochemical parameters toward their normal control values. However, the reversion was found to be more prominent in after-stress group. Conclusion: The aforementioned results highlight the significant antioxidant potential of S. nigrum extracts. On the basis of our study, we suggest the possible use of S. nigrum leaves extract as a nutritional supplement for combating oxidative stress induced damage.

Impact of pharmacist-directed counseling and message reminder services on medication adherence and clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Narayana Goruntla, Vijayajyothi Mallela, Devanna Nayakanti

Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences 2019 11(1):69-76

Introduction: Medication nonadherence is the most common issue observed in the management of diabetes because of complex and lifelong therapy. The study aimed to assess the effect of pharmacist-directed counseling and daily text message reminder on medication adherence and clinical profile of patients with type II diabetes. Materials and Methods: This prospective, open-labeled, randomized control trial was carried out in outpatient medical department of a secondary care referral hospital. A total of 330 patients who met study criteria were enrolled and randomized into an intervention group (n = 165), received counseling and daily messages about medication intake and control group (n = 165), and usual care by physician. Medication adherence and clinical outcomes such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), systolic blood pressure (SBP), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) levels, and body mass index (BMI) were recorded at baseline and follow-up visits. Two-sample Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare the mean difference of medication adherence and paired t-test was used to compare clinical outcomes. Results and Discussion: The mean age of intervention and control groups were 57.1±8.55 and 58.5±8.53 years, respectively. The mean difference of medication adherence from baseline to second follow-up visit was significantly more in intervention group (12.2±7.1%) compared to that in control group (0.75±10.2%) with a P < 0.001. From baseline to second follow-up visit, HbA1C (7.79±0.67 to 6.91±0.83%), SBP (136.75±20.09 to 126.23±18.22mm Hg), and LDL cholesterol (104.14±26.23 to 98.29±20.87mg/dL) levels were significantly reduced in intervention group compared to that in control group with a P < 0.01. No significant improvement was observed in TG (169±33.71 to 168 65±33.90mg/dL) and BMI (27.9±4.21 to 27.1±3.12Kg/m2) levels from baseline to second follow-up visit. Conclusion: Pharmacist-directed patient counseling combined with message reminder showed a greater effect on the improvement of medication adherence and control of glycemia, blood pressure, and lipid profile in diabetes.

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