Δευτέρα, 18 Φεβρουαρίου 2019

Earth Sciences

Evaluation of the SMOS and SMAP soil moisture products under different vegetation types against two sparse in situ networks over arid mountainous watersheds, Northwest China

Abstract

Assessment of the suitability of satellite soil moisture products at large scales is urgently needed for numerous climatic and hydrological researches, particularly in arid mountainous watersheds where soil moisture plays a key role in landatmosphere exchanges. This study presents evaluation of the SMOS (L2) and SMAP (L2_P_E and L2_P) products against ground-based observations from the Upstream of the Heihe River Watershed in situSoil Moisture Network (UHRWSMN) and the Ecological and Hydrological Wireless Sensor Network (EHWSN) over arid high mountainous watersheds, Northwest China. Results show that all the three products are reliable in catching the temporal trend of the in situ observations at both point and watershed scales in the study area. Due to the uncertainty in brightness temperature and the underestimation of effective temperature, the SMOS L2 product and both the SMAP L2 products show "dry bias" in the high, cold mountainous area. Because of the more accurate brightness temperature observations viewing at a constant angle and more suitable estimations of single scattering albedo and optical depth, both the SMAP L2 products performed significantly better than the SMOS product. Moreover, comparing with station density of in situ network, station representation is much more important in the evaluation of the satellite soil moisture products. Based on our analysis, we propose the following suggestions for improvement of the SMOS and SMAP product suitability in the mountainous areas: further optimization of effective temperature; revision of the retrieval algorithm of the SMOS mission to reduce the topographic impacts; and, careful selection of in situ observation stations for better representation of in situnetwork in future evaluations. All these improvements would lead to better applicability of the SMOS and SMAP products for soil moisture estimation to the high elevation and topographically complex mountainous areas in arid regions.



Carbon emissions induced by farmland expansion in China during the past 300 years

Abstract

Scientific assessment of the accounting over carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem in the process land use/land cover changes caused by human activities will help reduce the uncertainty in estimating carbon emissions from the terrestrial ecosystem. This study employs a bookkeeping model to estimate the carbon emissions from farmland reclamation in China during the past 300 years based on the annual rate of land use changes (derived from historical natural vegetation, farmland data), preset carbon density and coefficients of disturbance curves. We find out that: (1) there was a net increase of 79.30×104 km2 in national farmland; about 65% of reclaimed farmland had been forest land and 26% of that had been grass land previously; (2) the total amount of carbon emissions from farmland expansion in China had been between 2.94 and 5.61 Pg with the median 3.78 Pg during the past 300 years; specifically, carbon emissions of vegetation were 1.58 Pg while those of soil ranged from 1.35 Pg to 4.03 Pg with the median 2.20 Pg; (3) carbon emissions vary greatly across various ecosystems: the emissions were most from forest land, and then grass land and swamps, and the least from shrubs; deserts functioned more likely to be carbon stock in the process of land reclamation; (4) along the time line, carbon emissions had decreased first and then increased while the peak emissions occurred in the first half of 20th century; and spatially, carbon emissions were most released in Northeast and Southwest China; Northwest China was of the minimum carbon emissions.



Responses of benthic foraminifera to changes of temperature and salinity: Results from a laboratory culture experiment

Abstract

The effects of temperature and salinity on intertidal foraminiferal community under laboratory conditions are poorly understood. We designed a two-factor crossed experiment in which foraminiferal communities were cultured at different temperatures (6, 12, and 18°C) and salinities (15, 20, 25, and 30 psu) for 10 weeks. In total, 2616 living (stained) specimens were obtained and analyzed. Foraminiferal abundance ranged from 9 to 202 individuals/10 g wet weight of sediment. The highest abundance was obtained at 12°C, 25 psu and the lowest at 6°C, 15 psu. Statistical results demonstrated that temperature affected foraminiferal community more significantly than salinity. Most foraminiferal community parameters (abundance, species richness, Margalef index, and Shannon-Wiener diversity) were significantly positively correlated to temperature, but not to salinity, whereas Pielou's evenness was significantly negatively correlated to both temperature and salinity. The interactive effect of temperature and salinity on foraminiferal abundance was significant. In addition, with increasing temperature, the species composition shifted from hyaline Rotaliida to porcellaneous Miliolida. The abundance of dominant species (e.g., Ammonia aomoriensisA. beccarii, and Quinqueloculina seminula) showed significant positive correlations to temperature. Our study indicated that the intertidal foraminiferal community responds sensitively and rapidly to the changes of salinity and, especially, temperature by shifting foraminiferal species composition and altering the community parameters.



Field-observation for an anticyclonic mesoscale eddy consisted of twelve gliders and sixty-two expendable probes in the northern South China Sea during summer 2017

Abstract

An intensive field observation experiment using 12 Chinese gliders equipped with conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensors and 62 expendable CTD probes (XCTDs) was performed to investigate the 3-D structure and time evolution of an anticyclonic eddy in the northern South China Sea (NSCS). The observed results showed that the anticyclonic eddy had a horizontal radius of about 80 km at surface and a vertical depth of impact of more than 1000 m. The largest temperature and salinity anomalies compared with the averaged values of the temperature and salinity profiles were 3.5°C and 0.4 psu at 120 m depth, respectively. Combined analysis of altimeter sea level and water mass properties indicated that the anticyclonic eddy was shed from the Kuroshio loop current. The vertical axis of the anticyclonic eddy tilted from surface to the observed maximum depth (1000 m) along its translation direction against the 2000 m isobath. The center of the anticyclonic eddy remained in the region east of Dongsha Island for more than half a month. During this time, the long axis direction of the eddy changed from across the slope to along the slope. Then, the eddy moved southward along the 2000 m isobaths. Both the geostrophic current and temperature distribution revealed that the eddy intensity weakened during the observation period gradually. These observations indicated strong interaction between the anticyclonic eddy and the slope topography of Dongsha Island.



Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols analyzed using a multiwavelength thermal/optical carbon analyzer: A case study in Lanzhou City

Abstract

Characteristics of atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols in Lanzhou City from December 2014 to November 2015 are analyzed using a multiwavelength thermal/optical carbon analyzer. Results reveal that average concentrations of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon in atmospheric aerosols at Lanzhou are 6.7 and 25.4 μg m−3, respectively, showing obvious seasonality (higher in winter and lower in summer). This is consistent with findings in cities of northern China. Primary organic aerosols and secondary organic aerosols respectively account for approximately 60% and 17% of carbonaceous aerosols. No significant seasonality is found for secondary organic carbon, indicating that its potential sources do not vary significantly throughout the study period. The mass absorption cross-section (MAC632 nm) of BC is 7.1 m2 g−1, slightly higher than that of immediately emitted BC. MAC values of BC at different wavelengths vary drastically; they are higher for ultraviolet and visible light (8.5–10.2 m2 g–1) than for near-infrared light (4.9–5.7 m2 g–1). The aerosol absorption optical depth generally declines from the near-infrared to the near-ultraviolet region. The values are higher in winter than in summer, thus showing there are different contributions of BC deposition in different seasons. Brown carbon (BrC) has an Ångström absorption exponent (AAE) value of approximately 2.75, which is similar to the AAE value of BrC generated by diesel combustion (2.3). The contribution of BrC to light absorption is as much as 34% at a wavelength of 635 nm. This study demonstrates that the multiwavelength thermal/optical carbon analyzer can quantify absorption properties of BrC in atmospheric aerosols. This can enhance understanding of carbonaceous aerosols and provide key parameters for simulations of climate models.



The application of the orthogonal conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations method to typhoon track ensemble forecasts

Abstract

The orthogonal conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations (CNOPs) method, orthogonal singular vectors (SVs) method and CNOP+SVs method, which is similar to the orthogonal SVs method but replaces the leading SV (LSV) with the first CNOP, are adopted in both the Lorenz-96 model and Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU/NCAR) Fifth-Generation Mesoscale Model (MM5) for ensemble forecasts. Using the MM5, typhoon track ensemble forecasting experiments are conducted for strong Typhoon Matsa in 2005. The results of the Lorenz-96 model show that the CNOP+SVs method has a higher ensemble forecast skill than the orthogonal SVs method, but ensemble forecasts using the orthogonal CNOPs method have the highest forecast skill. The results from the MM5 show that orthogonal CNOPs have a wider horizontal distribution and better describe the forecast uncertainties compared with SVs. When generating the ensemble mean forecast, equally averaging the ensemble members in addition to the anomalously perturbed forecast members may contribute to a higher forecast skill than equally averaging all of the ensemble members. Furthermore, for given initial perturbation amplitudes, the CNOP+SVs method may not have an ensemble forecast skill greater than that of the orthogonal SVs method, but the orthogonal CNOPs method is likely to have the highest forecast skill. Compared with SVs, orthogonal CNOPs fully consider the influence of nonlinear physical processes on the forecast results; therefore, considering the influence of nonlinearity may be important when generating fast-growing initial ensemble perturbations. All of the results show that the orthogonal CNOP method may be a potential new approach for ensemble forecasting.



Novel fuzzy uncertainty modeling for land cover classification based on clustering analysis

Abstract

It is well known that there is a degree of fuzzy uncertainty in land cover classification using remote sensing (RS) images. In this article, we propose a novel fuzzy uncertainty modeling algorithm for representing the features of land cover patterns, and present an adaptive interval type-2 fuzzy clustering method. The proposed fuzzy uncertainty modeling method is performed in two main phases. First, the segmentation units of the input multi-spectral RS image data are subjected to object-based interval-valued symbolic modeling. As a result, features for each land cover type are represented in the form of an interval-valued symbolic vector, which describes the intra-class uncertainty better than the source data and improves the separability between different classes. Second, interval type-2 fuzzy sets are generated for each cluster based on the distance metric of the interval-valued vectors. This step characterizes the inter-class high-order fuzzy uncertainty and improves the classification accuracy. To demonstrate the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed approach, extensive experiments are conducted on two multispectral RS image datasets from regions with complex land cover characteristics, and the results are compared with those given by well-known fuzzy and conventional clustering algorithms.



Dynamical downscaling of regional climate: A review of methods and limitations

Abstract

The traditional dynamical downscaling (TDD) method employs continuous integration of regional climate models (RCM) with the general circulation model (GCM) providing the initial and lateral boundary conditions. Dynamical downscaling simulations are constrained by physical principles and can generate a full set of climate information, providing one of the important approaches to projecting fine spatial-scale future climate information. However, the systematic biases of climate models often degrade the TDD simulations and hinder the application of dynamical downscaling in the climate-change related studies. New methods developed over past decades improve the performance of dynamical downscaling simulations. These methods can be divided into four groups: the TDD method, the pseudo global warming method, dynamical downscaling with GCM bias corrections, and dynamical downscaling with both GCM and RCM bias corrections. These dynamical downscaling methods are reviewed and compared in this paper. The merits and limitations of each dynamical downscaling method are also discussed. In addition, the challenges and potential directions in progressing dynamical downscaling methods are stated.



The first ground tooth artifact in Upper Palaeolithic China

Abstract

Scholars have long recognized the importance of organic artifacts to an improved understanding of the economic and social behavior of Palaeolithic hominins. However, in contrast to archaeological studies in other parts of the world, osseous industries from China have received only limited attention. As one of the first steps aiming at tipping this balance, the current paper examines, therefore, a shaped boar tusk—one particular element of hunter-gatherers' tool kit at Shuidonggou Locality 12 (SDG12). Morphological and metrical comparisons of the tusk with both paleontological specimens and bone artifacts from the same site demonstrate that wear pattern on one of the dentin surfaces of the tooth is not significant different from occlusal attritions in living animals, while linear striations on the other dentin facet are most probably artificial grinding marks formed by prehistoric toolmakers in attempts to manufacture a scraper. The tusk specimen from SDG12 represents the first evidence of a ground tooth in Upper Palaeolithic China. The current study indicates that hominins in Shuidonggou area had achieved a deepened understanding of physical properties of osseous material available in environs and ultimately broadened their range of raw material selection by adding a particular element to the inventory of subsistence tools.



Dissolved organic carbon in permafrost regions: A review

Abstract

A large quantity of organic carbon (C) is stored in northern and elevational permafrost regions. A portion of this large terrestrial organic C pool will be transferred by water into soil solution (~0.4 Pg C yr−1) (1 Pg=1015 g), rivers (~0.06 Pg C yr−1), wetlands, lakes, and oceans. The lateral transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the primary pathway, impacting river biogeochemistry and ecosystems. However, climate warming will substantially alter the lateral C shifts in permafrost regions. Vegetation, permafrost, precipitation, soil humidity and temperature, and microbial activities, among many other environmental factors, will shift substantially under a warming climate. It remains uncertain as to what extent the lateral C cycle is responding, and will respond, to climate change. This paper reviews recent studies on terrestrial origins of DOC, biodegradability, transfer pathways, and modelling, and on how to forecast of DOC fluxes in permafrost regions under a warming climate, as well as the potential anthropogenic impacts on DOC in permafrost regions. It is concluded that: (1) surface organic layer, permafrost soils, and vegetation leachates are the main DOC sources, with about 4.72 Pg C DOC stored in the topsoil at depths of 0–1 m in permafrost regions; (2) in-stream DOC concentrations vary spatially and temporally to a relatively small extent (1–60 mg C L−1) and annual export varies from 0.1–10 g C m–2 yr–1; (3) biodegradability of DOC from the thawing permafrost can be as high as 71%, with a median at 52%; (4) DOC flux is controlled by multiple factors, mainly including vegetation, soil properties, permafrost occurrence, river discharge and other related environmental factors, and (5) many statistical and process-based models have been developed, but model predictions are inconsistent with observational results largely dependent on the individual watershed characteristics and future discharge trends. Thus, it is still difficult to predict how future lateral C flux will respond to climate change, but changes in the DOC regimes in individual catchments can be predicted with a reasonable reliability. It is advised that sampling protocols and preservation and analysis methods should be standardized, and analytical techniques at molecular scales and numerical modeling on thermokarsting processes should be prioritized.



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