Septo-optic dysplasia is a congenital disorder consisting of optic nerve hypoplasia and absent septum pellucidum. While associated anomalies have been described, olfactory sulcus and bulb-tract hypoplasia have been scantily reported and was the focus of this study.
The picture archival and communications system and radiology information system (PACS-RIS) was searched over 15 years for patients with suspected septo-optic dysplasia (n = 41) and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Included patients had coronal (≤3 mm), axial (≤4 mm), and sagittal (≤4 mm) imaging reviewed by two staff neuroradiologists by consensus. Both olfactory sulcus and bulb-tract hypoplasia were ascribed a grade of 0 (normal) to 3 (complete hypoplasia). Other associated congenital anomalies were recorded, if present. Incidence of anomalies were compared to age-matched and gender-matched control patients.
Out of 41 septo-optic dysplasia patients 33 were included (mean age = 120.7 months), with 8 excluded due to isolated septum pellucidum absence (n = 5), isolated bilateral optic hypoplasia (n = 2), or inadequate imaging (n = 1). An olfactory sulcus was hypoplastic on one or both sides in 14/33 (42.4%). Olfactory bulb hypoplasia was noted in one or both tracts in 15/33 (45.4%). A significant correlation was found between degree of olfactory sulcal and bulb-tract hypoplasia (ρ = 0.528, p = 0.0009). Other anomalies were: anterior falx dysplasia (n = 16, 48.5%), incomplete hippocampal inversion (n = 14, 42.4%), polymicrogyria (n = 11, 33.3%), callosal complete or partial agenesis (n = 10, 30.3%), schizencephaly (n = 8, 24.2%), ectopic posterior pituitary (n = 6, 18.2%), and nodular heterotopia (n = 4, 12.1%). Of the age-matched control patients 10/33 (30.3%) had at least mild anterior falx hypoplasia, and 1 control patient was noted to have unilateral incomplete hippocampal inversion (IHI); none of the age-matched control patients had olfactory sulcus or bulb-tract hypoplasia.
Olfactory sulcus and bulb-tract hypoplasia are fairly common in septo-optic dysplasia and can be discordant between sides. Of the other associated anomalies, anterior falx dysplasia seems to be the most common.
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