Purpose of Review
Sporotrichosis, the disease caused by Sporothrix spp, ranges from subcutaneous infections to the severe disseminated or invasive diseases. The taxonomy of Sporothrix has been revised. The subcutaneous disease is suspected easily, but the extra-cutaneous disease is diagnosed by chance or with high suspicion. This review provides the overview of currently available diagnostic techniques.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or latex agglutination test with partially purified antigens helps in the diagnosis of extra-cutaneous sporotrichosis. Molecular methods have been used for the identification and typing of the fungus. Calmodulin, beta tubulin, translation elongation factor and chitin synthase genes are targeted for species differentiation. MALDI-TOF MS has been standardized to identify the species.
PCR-based molecular techniques and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS) help in the identification of Sporothrix species, whereas ELISA helps in diagnosing extra-cutaneous form. Utility of molecular techniques for detection of Sporothrix directly from clinical specimen needs to be evaluated.