Κυριακή, 11 Αυγούστου 2019

Oral Radiology

Abnormal positioning of the common carotid artery clinically diagnosed as a submandibular mass

Abstract

The common carotid artery (CCA) usually runs along the long axis of the neck, although it is occasionally found in an abnormal position or is displaced. We report a case of an 86-year-old woman in whom the CCA was identified in the submandibular area. The patient visited our clinic and reported soft tissue swelling in the right submandibular area. It resembled a tumor mass or a swollen lymph node. Computed tomography showed that it was the right CCA that had been bent forward and was running along the submandibular subcutaneous area. Ultrasonography verified the diagnosis. No other lesions were found on the diagnostic images. Consequently, the patient was diagnosed as having abnormal CCA positioning. Although this condition generally requires no treatment, it is important to follow-up the abnormality with diagnostic imaging because of the risk of cerebrovascular disorders.



Buccal bifurcation cyst (paradental cyst) defined by ultrasonography and cone-beam computed tomography

Abstract

Buccal bifurcation cyst (BBC) is an uncommon inflammatory odontogenic cyst that generally occurs at the buccal region of the permanent mandibular first molars in children aged 6–8 years. The diagnosis of BBC cannot be made from the histopathologic features; therefore, diagnosis is primarily based on specific clinical and radiographic findings. In this case report, we present the clinical and radiological findings, including ultrasonography (USG) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, of a 10-year-old boy who was referred with a complaint of swelling on the lower right jaw. According to the radiographic and clinical findings, the differential diagnosis of this lesion included lateral radicular cyst, lateral periodontal cyst, dentigerous cyst, eruption cyst, and others. Recently, in addition to classical radiographies and CBCT, USG has been considered important for diagnosis. In particular, if a cyst produces a perforation in the cortical bone, it is helpful to make a pre-diagnosis with USG.



Diagnostic usefulness of panoramic imaging of the pterygopalatine fossa: case of a schwannoma causing pterygopalatine fossa expansion

Abstract

The pterygopalatine fossa is a small area between the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus and the anterior surface of the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone. The pterygopalatine fossa can be seen clearly on panoramic imaging. We present the case of a 57-year-old man who exhibited right pterygopalatine fossa expansion on panoramic imaging. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and panoramic imaging all showed a tumor at the right pterygopalatine fossa in this patient. CT indicated that the tumor replaced right retromaxillary fat and displaced the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus. On MRI, the tumor showed intermediate signal intensity at the paranasal area on T1-weighted images, and variable intermediate and high signal intensities on fat-suppressed T2-weighted images. It was eventually diagnosed as a schwannoma. Thus, panoramic imaging can be used for disease screening at the posterior border of the maxilla. Our conclusion is based on this report of a patient with a schwannoma at the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus, which panoramic imaging revealed to have pterygopalatine fossa expansion.



Radiculomegaly of canines in oculofaciocardiodental syndrome

Abstract

Oculofaciocardiodental (OFCD) syndrome is a rare genetic disease, first reported by Hayward in 1980. This syndrome presents with various ocular, facial, cardiac, and dental symptoms, including congenital cataract, dysmorphic facial features, congenital heart disease, and enlarged roots, respectively. The most important criteria for the diagnosis of OFCD syndrome are dental abnormalities, especially extreme elongation of canine roots. Here, we report detailed analysis of the dentofacial region, as well as ocular, facial, cardiac, and dental findings in a female with OFCD syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, the patient in this case is the first such patient reported in South Korea.



Protection evaluation of non-lead radiation-shielding fabric: preliminary exposure-dose study

Abstract

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and shielding performance of a novel recently developed non-lead radiation-shielding fabric containing bismuth oxide (BO-fabric).

Methods

BO-fabric was fabricated using urethane resin and bismuth nanopowder. A dose-measurement method was employed to evaluate the radiation-attenuation characteristics of the shielding fabric in accordance with the Korean Standards standard. The shielding performances (%) were calculated by measuring the radiation doses after lamination with increasing layers of fabric (1–10 layers). The physical performance of the fabric in terms of flexural and abrasion resistances was evaluated by the Korea Apparel Testing and Research Institute (KATRI).

Results

The radiation-attenuation capabilities of one layer of BO-fabric were 58.5, 49.9, and 43.0% at tube voltages of 60, 80, and 100 kVp, respectively. The radiation-shielding performance upon lamination of BO-fabric gradually increased as the number of layers increased. Excellent flexural and abrasion resistances were observed in the KATRI evaluation.

Conclusions

A non-lead radiation-shielding fabric based on urethane resin and bismuth was fabricated and examined, revealing an excellent shielding performance. Owing to the flexibility and simple operation of the fabric, it can be employed for various designs of clothing and protective apparel with many purposes.



Characteristic imaging findings of acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma: a case report

Abstract

Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is an uncommon, histopathologically distinct variant of squamous cell carcinoma. ASCC commonly occurs in areas of skin exposed to sunlight and has only rarely been seen on mucosal surfaces such as the oral cavity. Although the World Health Organization has defined ASCC as an original entity, the imaging findings of ASCC have not been adequately described. We herein report a case of ASCC occurring in the oral mucosa with emphasis on the findings of several imaging studies: panoramic radiography, intraoral radiography, contrast-enhanced computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography.



Environmental temperature and air humidity and prevalence of maxillary sinus retention cysts: possible relationships (preliminary study)

Abstract

Objectives

The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of maxillary sinus retention cysts (MSRCs) and to evaluate the effects of mean temperature and mean air humidity on the prevalence of MSRCs in two cities in Turkey.

Methods

This retrospective study was conducted in Antalya and Erzurum, two cities with different air humidities and temperatures in Turkey. Panoramic images of patients who visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Akdeniz University and Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ataturk University for diagnostic purposes were evaluated. A total of 4800 panoramic images were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 27.03 ± 6.48 years. The prevalence of MSRCs was analyzed according to sex, mean temperature, and mean air humidity. Values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results

Among the 4800 panoramic images evaluated, 228 indicated the presence of MSRCs. MSRCs were found significantly more frequently in males than in females. The prevalence was 3% in Antalya and 6.5% in Erzurum, with a total prevalence of 4.8%. While there was a significant correlation between the total amount of cysts and monthly mean air humidity in Erzurum, the correlation effect size was very low.

Conclusions

The total prevalence of MSRCs was 4.8%. There were no correlations between the frequency of MSRCs and the mean air humidity or mean temperature.



Relationship between sella turcica bridging and cephalometric parameters in adolescents and young adults

Abstract

Objectives

Sella turcica bridging occurs with fusion or calcification of the anterior and posterior clinoid processes in the middle cranial region. This study aimed to compare the cephalometric parameters among normal shape, partial bridge, and total bridge of the sella turcica in adolescent and young adult subjects.

Methods

This retrospective study was performed on the lateral cephalometric radiographs of 410 Turkish adolescent and young adult subjects. The subjects were divided into three groups: normal sella turcica shape (128 females, 32 males; mean age: 17.7 ± 1.54 years), partial sella turcica bridge (129 females, 32 males; mean age: 17.8 ± 2.15 years), and total sella turcica bridge (66 females, 23 males; mean age: 18.2 ± 1.82 years). Thirteen angular and eight linear cephalometric measurements were performed using a cephalometric software program. The data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance, and the Kruskal–Wallis test with the Bonferroni correction.

Results

Significant differences were found for Nperp–A distance, Nperp–Pg distance, and palatal plane-to-anterior cranial base angle among the groups (p < 0.016). There were no significant differences in the cephalometric parameters between the partial and total sella turcica bridging groups (p > 0.05).

Conclusions

This study evaluated a large amount of data for cephalometric measurements focusing on the degree of calcification of the sella turcica in adolescent and young adult subjects. The maxilla and mandible were located in a sagittally retrusive position in the partial and total sella turcica bridge subjects compared with the normal sella turcica shape subjects.



Deep-learning classification using convolutional neural network for evaluation of maxillary sinusitis on panoramic radiography

Abstract

Objectives

To apply a deep-learning system for diagnosis of maxillary sinusitis on panoramic radiography, and to clarify its diagnostic performance.

Methods

Training data for 400 healthy and 400 inflamed maxillary sinuses were enhanced to 6000 samples in each category by data augmentation. Image patches were input into a deep-learning system, the learning process was repeated for 200 epochs, and a learning model was created. Newly-prepared testing image patches from 60 healthy and 60 inflamed sinuses were input into the learning model, and the diagnostic performance was calculated. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn, and the area under the curve (AUC) values were obtained. The results were compared with those of two experienced radiologists and two dental residents.

Results

The diagnostic performance of the deep-learning system for maxillary sinusitis on panoramic radiographs was high, with accuracy of 87.5%, sensitivity of 86.7%, specificity of 88.3%, and AUC of 0.875. These values showed no significant differences compared with those of the radiologists and were higher than those of the dental residents.

Conclusions

The diagnostic performance of the deep-learning system for maxillary sinusitis on panoramic radiographs was sufficiently high. Results from the deep-learning system are expected to provide diagnostic support for inexperienced dentists.



Oropharyngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma invading the mandibular bone through the mandibular foramen

Abstract

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare epithelial tumor of the head and neck region, and one of the most common malignant tumors of the salivary glands. ACC is a slow-growing tumor characterized by perineural invasion and often has a high-recurrence rate. We describe a case of oropharyngeal ACC invading the mandibular bone through the mandibular foramen that showed a rare pattern of origin and invasion. A 70-year-old woman complained of noise and pain around the right temporomandibular joint. Osteomyelitis was suspected on the initial imaging examinations, although the findings were slightly atypical. However, a mass was observed in the right oropharyngeal wall on subsequent imaging examinations, and mandibular bone invasion, rather than osteomyelitis, was additionally suspected. The mass in the right oropharyngeal wall and right mandible was surgically excised. On postoperative histopathological examination, the mass was finally diagnosed as ACC. As tumor cells were also observed around the inferior alveolar nerve, mandibular bone invasion through the mandibular foramen was suspected. An oropharyngeal ACC invading the mandibular bone through the mandibular foramen is extremely rare. The present case suggests that bone invasion should be considered carefully with several imaging examinations when a malignant tumor such as ACC is observed around the jaw bone.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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