Πέμπτη, 8 Αυγούστου 2019

Occupational and Environmental Medicine

Issue Highlights
No abstract available

Answering the question: Is the Doctor of Philosophy or Doctor of Nursing Practice right for me?
imageOver the past decade, leading health care organizations have recommended doubling the number of doctorally prepared nurses to meet the future demands of health care. In 2018, the National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties committed to move all nurse practitioner degree programs to the Doctor of Nursing Practice degree by 2025. As more and more doctorally prepared nurses enter the workforce, other nurses are considering returning to school for a terminal degree. This column will review options for doctoral education in nursing and the strength, focus, and program requirements for PhD and DNP degrees.

Pharmacogenomics in clinical care
imageHealth care designed specifically for a person based on their genetic makeup ("personalized" or "precision" medicine) is expanding rapidly, especially in the area of drug selection. Pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing, when drugs and doses are selected based on an individual's genetic profile, is increasingly being used to guide the selection of drugs or therapies to optimize outcomes and minimize side effects. Based on an individual's genetic blueprint, health care providers now have important information about how a drug is likely to behave in that individual's body. Pharmacogenomic information on drug labels is now available for nearly 250 drugs. Health care organizations are also increasingly making this information available to customers to reduce emergency department visits, improve outcomes (selecting the right chemotherapy doses), and reduce cost. This study reviews some of the challenges and benefits on using PGx testing to improve clinical outcomes.

Research translation and the evolving PhD and DNP practice roles: A collaborative call for nurse practitioners
imageDoctoral prepared nurse practitioners (NPs) are uniquely positioned for responsible leadership as essential members of the health care system and have a professional responsibility to contribute to research and clinical inquiry initiatives that advance health care delivery and improve outcomes. Academic preparation of the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) and Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP), although different in focus, offers opportunities for effective collaborations that transcend and integrate the scientific and practice roles of generating data and translating evidence. As health care organizations evolve in managing complexities of providing high-quality care, roles for the PhD as research scientist and DNP as research translation specialist will also evolve to keep pace. Despite this professional calling and global opportunity for research and evidence-based practice (EBP), future NPs and nurses will be challenged with an imminent lack of experts who have the skills needed for data and research generation and evidence translation. This commentary introduces and discusses emerging roles and organizational models for doctoral prepared NPs in research, EBP, quality assurance, and quality improvement projects, offers suggestions for NPs interested in research and clinical inquiry, and seeks to ignite excitement for scientific discovery in NP-driven initiatives. Nurse practitioners are encouraged to take advantage of the many opportunities to shape and expand their careers by engaging in knowledge generation for improving health care outcomes.

From education to practice: What we can learn about the workforce from a survey of new nurse practitioners
imageBackground and purpose: To understand the posttraining plans and job market for new nurse practitioners (NPs), a survey was conducted of new family NPs (FNPs) in 2017. The survey was also designed to test the logistics and feasibility of conducting such a survey on a national scale and the usefulness of data gathered. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted through an online survey administered to a national sample of 159 FNPs who graduated from an accredited NP program. Conclusions: Many new NPs are not willing or interested in moving out of their local community even if there are limited opportunities locally. There are high numbers of NPs going into private practice compared with community health or federally qualified health centers. Many new NPs have extensive previous work experience as registered nurses in hospitals; the career progression to NP shifts their work setting from inpatient to outpatient settings. Implications for practice: Although the job market for new NPs is generally good, with the rapid increase in NP graduates combined with the unwillingness or inability of many new NPs to move, some areas may have surpluses of NPs and limited job opportunities for new NPs, whereas other areas may have shortages upcoming. The survey of new NP graduates is a useful tool to monitor the experience of new NPs and provides valuable information to NP programs and prospective students. Future research should ensure a representative sample of new graduate NPs to accurately reflect the experience of new NPs.

Tax incentives for preceptors of nurse practitioner students in Massachusetts: A potential solution
imageWith a growing population, there is an increasing need for nurse practitioners to improve access to health care. There is currently a shortage of nurse practitioner (NP) preceptors across Massachusetts, making clinical placements difficult and at times unachievable. The lack of NP preceptors has a direct impact on student outcomes, educational programs, and ultimately access to care. The authors explored lessons learned about the national scale of this problem and whether Massachusetts should entertain legislative initiatives similar to other states as a solution. Data were collected from the boards of nursing and the national and state chapters of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners regarding current and pending legislation. State and federal sources and the Massachusetts Association of Colleges of Nursing provided statistical and qualitative data on current and future needs for NP preceptors. States that have successfully passed legislation have awarded tax incentives to NP preceptors, although none of the existing regulations have assessed for their effectiveness in improving preceptor availability. Massachusetts may benefit from legislation to improve NP student access to preceptors; however, incentives related to geographical location may best serve both students and the greater population.

Understanding nurse practitioner scope of practice: Regulatory, practice, and employment perspectives now and for the future
The nurse practitioner (NP) role has existed for 50 years. During the past 10 years, a national effort to use NPs to the full extent of their education based on the 2008 Consensus Model for Advanced Practice Registered Nurse Regulation and the 2010 Institute of Medicine Report on the Future of Nursing continues to result in variable scopes of practice (SOP) between states. Subsequently, NPs have a lack of clarity on SOP because it relates to population foci and practice setting. Review and analysis of state-based statutes and rules with the current literature focused on NP SOP, including documents by the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, was conducted. Clarification and understanding of SOP is essential for safe practice and optimum access to care. Inconsistent SOP regulation continues to exist between states, and NPs can be in employment situations that place them in a position to possibly breech their SOP. Although practice is not setting specific, NP licensure is based on NP education and certification that is competency based within population foci, and credentialing by employers should align with these parameters. Continuing to work toward a more common NP SOP between states and achievement of full practice authority means periodic reassessment of NP education and practice models. Practice mobility is essential for continued advancement of the NP profession and increased access to care by the public.

Understanding nurse practitioner scope of practice: Regulatory, practice and employment perspectives now and for the future general
No abstract available

Improving outcomes through care coordination: Measuring care coordination of nurse practitioners
imageBackground: Gaps in care coordination (CC) between inpatient and outpatient settings for children with medical complexity (CMC) can result in treatment delays, gaps in communication, missed appointments, medication discrepancies, and ultimately impacts the provision of quality care. Local problem: As care for pediatric patients with medical complexity moves into community settings, various ambulatory settings, including infusion settings, are caring for patients who would otherwise often require inpatient hospitalization to receive their care. To better accommodate this growing demand, nurse practitioners (NPs) have been used to support these nurse-led infusion programs. The purpose of this quality improvement (QI) project was to quantify and describe the outcomes of CC by NPs in this ambulatory setting. Methods: A quantitative design was used. Interventions: We captured nonreimbursable CC activities provided by NPs and associated outcome(s) among pediatric patients seen in two ambulatory infusion clinics, at Boston Children's Hospital between January and April 2017, and generated summary statistics for this QI project. Results: There were 259 nonreimbursable CC encounters. Most of the CC activities prevented delays in treatment (38%), adverse reaction to medicine because of medication discrepancies (8%), need for additional subspecialist visits (10%), missed infusion appointments (5%), and emergency department visits (2%). Conclusion: Nonreimbursable CC provided by NPs in a tertiary hospital-based ambulatory program improved outcomes of care for CMC and helped facilitate health care use. This project quantified and described the outcomes of CC provided by NPs, and the value of CC on CMC.

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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