Τετάρτη, 31 Ιουλίου 2019

Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research(R)

Editorial: What Do You Say When a Patient Says Thank You?
No abstract available

Editor's Spotlight/Take 5: What Role Does Positive Psychology Play in Understanding Pain Intensity and Disability Among Patients with Hand and Upper-extremity Conditions?
imageNo abstract available

What Role Does Positive Psychology Play in Understanding Pain Intensity and Disability Among Patients with Hand and Upper Extremity Conditions?
imageBackground A large body of research shows that psychologic distress and ineffective coping strategies substantially contribute to more severe pain and increased physical limitations among patients with orthopaedic disorders. However, little is known about the relationship between positive psychology (constructs that enable individuals to thrive and adapt to challenges) and pain and physical limitations in this population. Questions/purposes (1) Which positive-psychology factors (satisfaction with life, gratitude, coping through humor, resilience, mindfulness, and optimism) are independently associated with fewer upper-extremity physical limitations after controlling for the other clinical and demographic variables? (2) Which positive-psychology factors are independently associated with pain intensity after controlling for relevant clinical and demographic variables? Methods In a cross-sectional study, we recruited patients presenting for a scheduled appointment with an orthopaedic surgeon at a hand and upper-extremity clinic of a major urban academic medical center. Of 125 approached patients, 119 (44% men; mean age, 50 ± 17 years) met screening criteria and agreed to participate. Patients completed a clinical and demographic questionnaire, the Numerical Rating Scale to assess pain intensity, the Patient-reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Upper Extremity Physical Function computerized adaptive test to assess physical limitations, and six measures assessing positive-psychology constructs: The Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Gratitude Questionnaire, the Coping Humor Scale, the Brief Resilience Scale, the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised, and the Life Orientation Test-Revised. We first examined bivariate associations among physical limitations, pain intensity, and all positive-psychology factors as well as demographic and clinical variables. All variables that demonstrated associations with physical limitations or pain intensity at p < 0.05 were included in two-stage multivariable hierarchical regression models. Results After controlling for the potentially confounding effects of prior surgical treatment and duration since pain onset (step1; R2 total = 0.306; F[7,103] = 6.50), the positive-psychology variables together explained an additional 15% (R2 change = 0.145, F change [5, 103] = 4.297, p = 0.001) of the variance in physical limitations. Among the positive-psychology variables tested, mindfulness was the only one associated with fewer physical limitations (β = 0.228, t = 2.293, p = 0.024, 4% variance explained). No confounding demographic or clinical variables were found for pain intensity in bivariate analyses. All positive-psychology variables together explained 23% of the variance in pain intensity (R2 = 0.23; F[5,106] = 6.38, p < 0.001). Among the positive-psychology variables, satisfaction with life was the sole factor independently associated with higher intensity (β = -0.237, t = -2.16, p = 0.033, 3% variance explained). Conclusions Positive-psychology variables explained 15% of the variance in physical limitations and for 23% of the variance in pain intensity among patients with heterogenous upper extremity disorders within a hand and upper extremity practice. Of all positive-psychology factors, mindfulness and satisfaction with life were most important for physical limitations and pain intensity, respectively. As positive-psychology factors are more easily modifiable through skills-based interventions than pain and physical limitations, results suggest implementation of such interventions to potentially improve outcomes in this population. Skills-based interventions targeting mindfulness and satisfaction with life may be of particular benefit. Level of Evidence Level II, prognostic study.

Value-based Healthcare: Can Artificial Intelligence Provide Value in Orthopaedic Surgery?
No abstract available

Clinical Faceoff: Should Routine Histopathological Analysis be Performed on Specimens Obtained During Primary Arthroplasty Surgery?
imageNo abstract available

Not the Last Word: Prizes for Cures
No abstract available

Equity360: Gender, Race, and Ethnicity—What's in Your Knapsack?
No abstract available

From Bench to Bedside: We Can (Still) Do Better—Moving Towards More Thoughtful, "Constructive" Amputations
No abstract available

CORR® International – Asia-Pacific: Moving from University to Private Practice
No abstract available

CORR® ORS Richard A. Brand Award: Disruption in Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (: PPARG: ) Increases Osteonecrosis Risk Through Genetic Variance and Pharmacologic Modulation
imageBackground The pathophysiology of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is poorly understood, and the diagnosis is idiopathic in as many as 40% of patients. Genetic and epigenetic etiologies have been postulated, yet no single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with intuitive biologic implications have been elucidated. Questions/purposes (1) Do individuals with ONFH share common biologically relevant genetic variants associated with disease development? (2) What is the mechanism by which these SNPs may impact the expression or function of the affected gene or protein? Methods This retrospective genome-wide association study (GWAS) evaluated participants from the Mayo Clinic Biobank and Mayo Clinic Genome Consortium between August 2009 and March 2017. We included every patient with atraumatic ONFH in each of these respective registries and every control patient in a previous GWAS with an acceptable platform to perform statistical imputation. The study was performed in two phases, with an initial discovery cohort and a subsequent validation cohort. The initial discovery cohort consisted of 102 patients with ONFH and 4125 controls. A logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between SNPs and the risk of ONFH, adjusted for age and sex. Seven SNPs were identified in a gene of biological interest, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), which were then evaluated in a subsequent validation cohort of 38 patients with ONFH and 464 controls. Age, sex, race, and previous steroid exposure were similar between patients with ONFH and controls in both the discovery and validation cohorts. Separate from the two-phase genetic investigation, we performed targeted pharmacosurveillance to evaluate the risk association between the use of antidiabetic thiazolidinediones, a class of PPARG agonists, and development of ONFH by referencing 9,638,296 patient records for individuals treated at Mayo Clinic. Results A combined analysis of the discovery and validation cohorts revealed that seven SNPs were tightly clustered adjacent to the 3' end of PPARG, suggesting an association with the risk of ONFH (p = 1.58 x 10-2-5.50 x10-6). PPARG gene-level significance was achieved (p = 3.33 x 10-6) when all seven SNPs were considered. SNP rs980990 had the strongest association with the risk of ONFH (odds ratio [OR], 1.95; 95% CI, 1.46-2.59; p = 5.50 x 10-6). The seven identified SNPs were mapped to a region near the PPARG gene and fell in a highly conserved region consisting of several critical transcription factor binding sites. Nucleotide polymorphisms at these sites may compromise three-dimensional chromatin organization and alter PPARG 3' end interactions with its 5' promoter and transcription start site. Pharmacosurveillance identified that patients who were exposed to thiazolidinediones had an increased relative risk of developing ONFH of 5.6 (95% CI, 4.5-7.1). Conclusions We found that disruption of PPARG regulatory domains is linked to an increased risk of ONFH. Mechanistically, aberrant regulation of PPARG compromises musculoskeletal differentiation because this master regulator creates a proadipogenic and antiosteogenic state. Furthermore, PPARG alters steroid metabolism and vasculogenesis, processes that are inextricably linked with ONFH. Pharmacologically, predisposition to ONFH was further exposed with thiazolidinedione use, which upregulates the expression of PPARG and is known to alter bone metabolism. Collectively, these findings provide a foundation to perform confirmatory studies of our proposed mechanism in preclinical models to develop screening diagnostics and potential therapies in patients with limited options. Level of Evidence Level III, prognostic study.

Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

Δεν υπάρχουν σχόλια:

Δημοσίευση σχολίου

Δημοφιλείς αναρτήσεις