Δευτέρα, 10 Ιουνίου 2019

Survivorship

Mobility in survivors with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy and utility of the 6-min walk test

Abstract

Background

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a significant and often lasting side effect of cancer treatment, with increasing CIPN severity associated with increasing deficits in balance, gait, and mobility. The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is a widely validated and utilized measure of general physical functioning and mobility, although its utility in a CIPN context is unclear. This study aimed to determine the utility of the 6MWT as an assessment of mobility deficits in a CIPN cohort and utilize the 6MWT to compare mobility data from CIPN patients to those of healthy and clinical populations.

Methods

Cancer survivors exposed to neurotoxic chemotherapies (N = 100; mean 17 ± 13 months post-treatment; mean age 59 ± 13 years) completed a single cross-sectional assessment of patient-reported and objective CIPN, mobility (6MWT), and disability.

Results

CIPN symptoms were reported in the majority of the cohort (87%). Increasing age, patient-reported and objective CIPN symptoms, and disability were associated with decreasing 6MWT distance (.48 ≤ R ≤ .63; p < .001) in bivariate models. Multiple regression models of 6MWT distance included age, sex, and patient-reported or objective CIPN severity as significant independent correlates (.62 ≤ R ≤ .64; p < .03). 6MWT distances in patients with CIPN symptom severity above the cohort mean were consistent with mean values reported in diabetic neuropathy and clinical populations.

Conclusions

Increased CIPN symptoms are associated with increased mobility deficits. The 6MWT demonstrates promising utility as a mobility assessment in a CIPN cohort.

Implications for Cancer Survivors

The impact of the progression of CIPN on mobility deficits in survivors emphasizes the need for effective interventions to treat and prevent CIPN.



Racial and socioeconomic disparities in adherence to preventive health services for ovarian cancer survivors

Abstract

Purpose

To examine ovarian cancer survivors' adherence to evidence-based guidelines for preventive health care.

Methods

A case-control, retrospective study of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries diagnosed with stage I, II, or III epithelial ovarian cancer from 2001 to 2010 using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database. Survivors were matched 1:1 to non-cancer controls from the 5% Medicare Beneficiary file on age, race, state of residence, and follow-up time. Receipt of flu vaccination, mammography, and bone density tests were examined in accordance with national guidelines. Adherence was assessed starting 1 year after cancer diagnosis, across 2 years of claims. Interaction with the health care system, including outpatient and cancer surveillance visits, was tested as a potential mechanism for receipt of services.

Results

2437 survivors met the eligibility criteria (mean age, 75; 90% white). Ovarian cancer survivors were more likely to be adherent to flu vaccination (5 percentage points (pp); < 0.001) and mammography guidelines (10 pp.; < 0.001) compared to non-cancer controls, but no differences were found for bone density test guidelines (− 1 pp.; NS). Black women were less likely to be adherent to flu vaccination and bone density tests compared with white women. Women dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid were less likely to be adherent compared to those without such support. Adherence was not influenced by measures of outpatient visits.

Conclusion

Ovarian cancer survivors are receiving preventive services with the same or better adherence than their matched counterparts. Minority and dual-eligible survivors received preventive services at a lower rate than white survivors and those with higher income. The number of outpatient visits was not associated with increased preventive health visits.

Implications for Cancer Survivors

Ovarian cancer survivors are receiving adequate follow-up care to be adherent to preventive health measures. Efforts to improve care coordination post-treatment may help reduce minority and low SES disparities.



The survivorship experience for patients with metastatic melanoma on immune checkpoint and BRAF-MEK inhibitors

Abstract

Purpose

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) and BRAF and MEK inhibitors (BMi) have improved survival in metastatic melanoma (MM). However, the experience of long-term responders remains undescribed. This study characterised survivorship issues faced by long-term responders to ICI or BMi.

Methods

Patients with MM, aged ≥ 18 years old, ≥ 6 months post-ICI or BMi initiation with an objective response or stable disease. A 72-question survey assessed physical and psychological effects, impact on lifestyle, access to information, satisfaction with care, and availability of supports.

Results

One hundred and five of 120 (88%) patients completed the survey (ICI 69/BMI 36). For the ICI cohort, 39 (57%) were receiving ongoing treatment, 17 ceased due to toxicity and 13 due to a sustained response. For the BMi cohort, 31 (85%) were receiving ongoing treatment, 4 ceased due to toxicity and 1 due to a sustained complete response. At data cut-off on 18 December 2018, median PFS (range) was 2.5 years (1.3–8.5) for ICI and 3.1 years (0.6–7.3) for BMi. Long-term toxicities included dry/itchy skin (ICI 51, 74%/ BMi 25, 69%), arthralgias (ICI 30, 58%/ BMi 23, 64%) and fatigue (ICI 62, 90%/ BMi 33, 92%). Psychological morbidity was common, including anxiety awaiting results (ICI 50, 72%/ BMi 29, 81%), fear of melanoma recurring or progressing (ICI 56, 81%/ BMi 31, 86%) or death (ICI 44, 64%/ BMi 26, 72%).

Conclusion

MM survivors experience chronic treatment toxicities and frequently report psychological concerns.

Implications for Cancer Survivors

Survivors may benefit from discussions regarding long-term toxicities and tailored psychological supports.



Correction to: Health care services use among long-term breast cancer survivors: a systematic review

The article Health care services use among long-term breast cancer survivors: a systematic review, written by Anna Jansana, Margarita Posso, Inmaculada Guerrero, Alexandra Prados-Torres, Maria Isabel Del Cura, Xavier Castells and Maria Sala, was originally published electronically.



Prescribing fitness apps for people with cancer: a preliminary assessment of content and quality of commercially available apps

Abstract

Purpose

The benefits of physical activity for cancer survivors are increasingly recognised and smartphone applications are available to assist them to become more physically active. Cancer clinicians, however, lack confidence about which physical activity apps to recommend as evidence on their quality and content is limited. Therefore, we reviewed freely available commercial physical activity/fitness apps to systematically assess their behavioural change content and quality of their design.

Methods

Systematic searches of the app stores for Apple and Android operating systems were conducted and apps were screened to identify free apps appropriate for cancer survivors. Quality was assessed using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS) and behavioural content was evaluated using the Behavioural Change Techniques Taxonomy (BCTT).

Results

Of 341 apps identified, 67 were judged appropriate for cancer survivors and 46% combined aerobic and strength/stretching content. The overall number of behavioural change techniques (BCT) included was 3.96 (SD = 2.09), with the most frequent being 'feedback on behaviour' and 'goal setting behaviour'. The mean scores for objective and subjective quality were 4.11 (SD = 0.59) and 3.07 (SD = 0.91) respectively (range 0 to 5). Finally, a modest positive correlation was found between the number of BCT and the quality of engagement, awareness and knowledge as assessed by the MARS.

Conclusion

Only a fifth of retrieved physical activity apps contained potentially suitable content for people affected by cancer. Overall, most apps we reviewed appeared to perform well in terms of their objective quality, but less well at promoting knowledge and awareness or help seeking related to physical activity.

Implications for Cancer Survivors

Many physical activity apps are available but the combined use of MARS and BCTT suggests that not all of them are suitable to the needs is a promising and feasible approach for assessing the applicability, usability and content of physical activity of apps employed by cancer survivors and this study is a first step toward developing a guide.



Contraceptive utilization and counseling among breast cancer survivors

Abstract

Purpose

To explore contraceptive counseling and utilization among breast cancer survivors.

Methods

We enrolled reproductive-aged women with a history of breast cancer for a cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited via the Athena Breast Health Network and via the Young Survival Coalition's social media postings. Descriptive statistics were calculated to understand utilization of and feelings about contraceptive methods before, during, and after breast cancer treatment.

Results

Data presented here are from an online survey of 150 breast cancer survivors who completed the survey. Seventy-one percent (n = 105) of respondents reported being sexually active and not pregnant during their primary cancer treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation). Of these, 90% (n = 94) reported using any form of contraceptive, and the most common method was condoms (n = 55, 52%). Respondents reported that safety concerns had the biggest influence on their contraception method choice. Sixty-one percent (n = 92) reported receiving contraceptive counseling by their oncologist either before or after treatment; however, 49% (n = 45) of those did not receive a specific recommendation for a contraceptive method. Of respondents who reported receiving contraceptive counseling from their gynecologist, 44% (n = 35) reported that their gynecologist specifically recommended a copper intrauterine device (IUD). The majority of respondents (n = 76, 52%) wanted their oncologist to discuss contraceptive options with them and preferred to receive this counseling at the time of diagnosis (n = 81, 57%).

Conclusions

Breast cancer survivors in this study remained sexually active across the cancer care continuum and predominantly used condoms as their contraceptive method during treatment. Breast cancer patients would prefer contraceptive counseling from their oncologist at the time of their cancer diagnosis.

Implication for Cancer Survivors

Education efforts in the future should focus on initiatives to improve comprehensive contraceptive counseling at the time of diagnosis by an oncologist.



Impact of lymphoma survivorship clinic visit on patient-centered outcomes

Abstract

Purpose

Cancer survivors may experience physical, social, and emotional effects of cancer and its treatments. National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend the development of a survivorship care plan (SCP) for cancer patients following completion of treatment with curative intent. Our institution developed a lymphoma survivorship clinic (SC) to assess patient needs, provide education, and create and deliver SCPs. This study analyzed the impact of a SC visit on patient-centered outcomes.

Methods

Surveys were sent to lymphoma patients at Mayo Clinic Rochester within 4 weeks of their post-treatment visit to the SC that queried patient-reported outcomes, including experience of care, quality of life (QOL), and distress. We compared survey responses between those who attended the SC and those who were eligible but did not attend.

Results

From November 2013 to May 2015, 236 lymphoma patients were surveyed, 96 of whom had a SC visit and 140 of who were eligible but did not attend. Those who attended the SC were more likely to "definitely" recall discussion on improving health, preventing illness, and making changes in habits/lifestyle, diet, and exercise. There were no differences in QOL or distress. Adjusted analyses revealed that SC attendance was associated with better self-reported overall health among younger patients and better physical well-being in Hodgkin lymphoma patients compared to those with other subtypes of lymphoma.

Conclusions

Participation in the lymphoma SC improved patient education on survivorship issues, particularly health behaviors. There may be a particular benefit in younger patients. However, there were no differences in QOL or distress. Further study is needed to determine if improved survivorship education and SCP delivery leads to long-term health benefits in cancer survivors.

Implications for Cancer Survivors

Our study evaluates the clinical impact of a SC in patients treated for lymphoma. We demonstrate that a SC visit improves patient education regarding health behaviors.



Adherence to multiple health behaviours in cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Abstract

Purpose

Multiple health behaviours (not smoking, minimal alcohol consumption, and maintaining a healthy weight by having a healthy diet and regular physical activity) improve quality of life and longevity of cancer survivors. Despite international guidelines, there are no existing reviews that synthesise cancer survivors' adherence to healthy lifestyle recommendations.

Method

Five databases (Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) were searched for relevant articles published from 2007 until January 2018. Studies reporting adult cancer survivors' adherence to at least two lifestyle behaviours (body mass index, physical activity, smoking, fruit and vegetable intake, fiber intake, red meat intake, caloric intake, sodium intake, and alcohol consumption) based on the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendations were included in the review. The pooled prevalence of adherence to single and multiple behaviours was calculated using a random-effects model. Subgroup analysis (mean years of survival and publication year) was undertaken.

Results

A total of 3322 articles were identified. Of these, 51 studies matched the inclusion criteria, presenting data from 2,620,586 adult cancer survivors. Adherence to single behaviours, which was estimated from studies that assessed at least two health behaviours, was highest for not smoking (PE 87%; 95% CI, 85%, 88%) and low or no alcohol intake (PE 83%; 95% CI, 81%, 86%), and lowest for fiber intake (PE 31%; 95% CI, 21%, 40%). Adherence to multiple healthy behaviours (13 studies), ranged from 7 to 40% (pooled estimate (PE) 23%; 95% CI, 17%, 30%). Recent survivors (< 5-year survival time) had relatively better adherence to multiple behaviours (PE 31%; 95% CI, 27%, 35%) than long-term (> 5 years) survivors (PE 25%; 95% CI, 14%, 36%). Adherence to multiple behaviours improved over time since 2007.

Conclusion

Adherence to physical activity, dietary, and multiple lifestyle behaviours recommendations was low amongst cancer survivors. Recent cancer survivors were relatively more adherent to WCRF/AICR recommendations compared to long-term survivors.

Implications for Cancer Survivors

Health promotion programs help support healthy lifestyle behaviours of cancer survivors.

PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018091663



Breast cancer survivors reduce accelerometer-measured sedentary time in an exercise intervention

Abstract

Purpose

Cancer survivors are highly sedentary and have low physical activity. How physical activity interventions impact sedentary behavior remains unclear. This secondary analysis examined changes in sedentary behavior among breast cancer survivors participating in a physical activity intervention that significantly increased moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA).

Methods

Insufficiently active breast cancer survivors were randomized to a 12-week physical activity intervention (exercise arm) or control arm. The intervention focused solely on increasing MVPA with no content targeting sedentary behavior. Total sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and MVPA were measured at baseline and 12 weeks (ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer). Separate linear mixed-effects models tested intervention effects on sedentary behavior, intervention effects on LPA, the relationship between change in MVPA and change in sedentary behavior, and potential moderators of intervention effects on sedentary behavior.

Results

The exercise arm had significantly greater reductions in sedentary behavior than the control arm (mean − 24.9 min/day (SD = 5.9) vs. − 4.8 min/day (SD = 5.9), b = − 20.1 (SE = 8.4), p = 0.02). Larger increases in MVPA were associated with larger decreases in sedentary behavior (b = − 1.9 (SE = 0.21), p < 0.001). Women farther out from surgery had significantly greater reductions in sedentary behavior than women closer to surgery (b = − 0.91 (SE = 0.5), p = 0.07). There was no significant group difference in change in LPA from baseline to 12 weeks (b = 5.64 (SE = 7.69), p = 0.48).

Conclusions

Breast cancer survivors in a physical activity intervention reduced total sedentary time in addition to increasing MVPA.

Implications for Cancer Survivors

Both increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior are needed to promote optimal health in cancer survivors. These results show that MVPA and sedentary behavior could be successfully targeted together, particularly among longer-term cancer survivors.

Clinical trial registration

This study is registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT 02332876).



The social and economic toll of cancer survivorship: a complex web of financial sacrifice

Abstract

Purpose

To assess the financial outcomes and associated social and economic effects on cancer survivors and their families.

Methods

We assessed the responses of 1656 cancer survivors to a survey with both closed- and open-ended questions about cancer-related financial sacrifices they and their family experienced and evaluated differences in financial sacrifice by reported levels of cancer-related debt.

Results

The most commonly reported financial sacrifices included cutbacks on household budgets, challenges with health care insurance and costs, career/self-advancement constraints, reduction/depletion of assets, and inability to pay bills. Survivors who incurred $10,000 or more in debt were significantly more likely to report social and economic impacts, including housing concerns and strained relationships.

Conclusions

Our analysis demonstrates both the frequency with which cancer survivors and families must make financial sacrifices as a result of their cancer, and the variety of forms that this sacrifice can take, even for individuals who have health insurance. The many types of financial hardship create challenges that are unique to each survivor and family.

Implications for Cancer Survivors

Interventions that allow for personalized assistance with the specific financial and social needs of cancer survivors and their families have the potential to address a critical aspect of the long-term wellbeing of this important population.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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