Κυριακή, 30 Ιουνίου 2019

Food Science and Biotechnology

Daily intake of polyamine-rich Saccharomyces cerevisiae S631 prevents osteoclastic activation and bone loss in ovariectomized mice

Abstract

An imbalance in the sophisticated regulation between bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts leads to the pathogenesis and etiology of certain metabolic bone diseases including osteoporosis. Certain polyamines are related to the pathophysiology of some disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, infectious disease, cancer, and aging. Recently, we demonstrated that oral intake of polyamines (spermidine and spermine) prevented bone loss through preferential disturbance of osteoclastic activation in ovariectomy-induced mouse model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Here, we showed that daily oral supplementation of a diet containing polyamine-rich Saccharomyces cerevisiae S631 significantly inhibited osteoclastic activation as well as reduction of bone volume in the cancellous bone without affecting uterine weight in ovariectomized mice. Our findings recommend that daily oral supplementation with polyamine-rich yeast diet would be beneficial for prophylaxis of metabolic bone diseases associated with abnormal osteoclast activation.



Enhancement of the antioxidant and hypolipidemic activities of Puerariae radix by fermentation with Aspergillus niger

Abstract

Puerariae radix (PR) is a traditional Chinese food and medicine. In this study, the chemical profile and bioactivities of PR fermented with Aspergillus niger (PFA) were investigated. Based on HPLC analysis, PFA chemical profile changed and total phenols increased by 12.5% relative to PR. Consequently, the in vitro antioxidant activity significantly improved. According to the blood lipid analysis in mice, PFA showed a better ability to inhibit the increased blood lipid levels induced by Triton WR-1339 than PR. In a quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) study, PFA up-regulated cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor mRNA expression, which were 50% and 44.8% higher than the levels induced by high-dose PR. Conversely, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCoAR) mRNA expression was down-regulated to 46.8% lower than the levels induced by high-dose PR. The qRT-PCR results suggested that PFA displayed better hypolipidemic activity than PR, due to its superior ability to regulate mRNA expression.



Application of near-infrared spectroscopy for screening the potato flour content in Chinese steamed bread

Abstract

Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was used as a technique to predict the potato flour content in Chinese steamed bread (CSB). The inner core of CSB was chosen as the measuring position for acquiring the NIR spectra. Spectra between 4000 and 10,000 cm−1 were analysed using a partial least-squares regression. The coefficient of determination (R CV 2 ) and the root mean square error of cross-validation in the calibration set were found to be 0.7940–0.8955 and 4.22–5.93, depending on the pre-treatment of the spectra. The external validation set gave an R2 and a ratio to performance deviation of 0.8865 and 3.07. Reasonable recovery (93.1–102.5%) and good intra-assay (3.3–8.3%) and inter-assay (7.6–17.2%) precision illustrated the feasibility of this method. The result of this study reveals that NIR spectroscopy could be used as rapid tool to determine the potato flour content in CSB (> 20%).



Protein and polyphenols involved in sediment formation in cloudy litchi juice

Abstract

Sedimentation is a major issue in juice production. This paper aims to study the mechanisms of precipitate formation during the storage of cloudy litchi juice. The sediment concentration, relative turbidity, and ζ potential were analyzed. The supernatant and sediment were separated to determine the contents of proteins and phenolics. The results showed that the amount of sediment increased during the storage. In addition, the total protein and total phenolic content in the supernatant decreased, whereas the glutelin and total phenolic contents in the sediment increased significantly (p < 0.05). Moreover, our results showed that the amounts of procyanidin B2and quercetin-3-O-rutinose-7-O-rhamnoside in the supernatant decreased noticeably. However, these two substances could not be detected in the sediment. In summary, the formation of sediment from litchi juice is mainly caused by the slow denaturation of proteins and the oxidation of procyanidin B2 and quercetin-3-O-rutinose-7-O-rhamnoside.



Optimization of submerged culture conditions involving a developed fine powder solid seed for exopolysaccharide production by the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum

Abstract

To facilitate Ganoderma lucidum submerged cultivation and achieve high productivity, four fine powder solid substrates incorporated with different nitrogen-rich supplements were utilized to grow the fungus and as solid seed for its submerged culture. Of the four solid seeds, the soybean meal solid seed gave the highest biomass (10.73 g/L) and exopolysaccharide (EPS) (1.22 g/L), higher than those (8.36 g/L biomass and 0.44 g/L EPS) obtained with mycelial liquid seed. The optimal level of soybean meal supplementation was 20% (w/w) for production of the solid seed. Following single factor experiments, levels of three selected process variables were optimized as: the moisture content of solid seed, 70%; inoculum size, 0.8 g/flask; and rotary speed, 160 rpm. These conditions were validated experimentally with improved EPS yield of 1.33 g/L. The developed solid seed can be conveniently used for Glucidum submerged culture with improved EPS productivity.



Improvement of cognitive function by Gochujang supplemented with tomato paste in a mouse model

Abstract

Gochujang, a traditional Korean hot sauce, was prepared with a variety of antioxidant-rich supplements to improve its bioactive functions and preference by pungency-sensitive people. Among the tested ingredients, tomato paste exhibited the strongest antioxidant and neuroprotective activities when added as a supplement to traditional gochujang. Furthermore, oral administration of gochujang prepared with tomato paste to mice significantly improved cognitive function compared to original gochujang. As gochujang supplemented with tomato paste was found to contain an appreciable amount of lycopene with neuroprotective activity, it is most likely that the neuroprotective activity and cognitive improvement by the product was partially attributable to cis-lycopene, a highly bioavailable form converted from trans-lycopene during the manufacturing process of the product. However, a further study is required to verify the precise underlying mechanism of action.



Production, purification and characterization of a milk clotting enzyme from Bacillus methanolicus LB-1

Abstract

Bacillus methanolicus LB-1 isolated from traditional rice wine was found to produce a milk clotting enzyme (MCE), and its fermentation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology. Then the MCE was produced by ethanol precipitation, and further chromatography separation resulted in a 10.46-fold purification with a 59.28% recovery. The MCA (milk clotting activity) of the purified MCE reached 597,310 ± 0.13 SU/g. The optimal temperature of the MCE was determined to be 50 °C and it was stable in the low temperature range of 40–45 °C. The MCE had an optimum pH of 6.5, and it was stable under neutral conditions. Calcium chloride at the concentration of 25 mM was found to be the most effective stimulus. The MCE was identified by LC–MS to be a putative protein (ID I3EB99) containing 759 amino acids with a molecular weight of 80.37 kDa and a pI of 9.23.



Physico-chemical and microbiological quality of ready-to-eat rocket ( Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav.) treated with organic acids during storage in dark and light conditions

Abstract

The effect of alternative dipping solutions to chlorinated water was studied on qualitative parameters of ready-to-eat rocket: sanitised tap water, 1% of citric acid solution and a mixture of citric and ascorbic acids solution. After packaging in normal atmosphere, a monitoring of total bacterial count and physico-chemical parameters was carried out to 14 storage days in dark and light storage conditions. The dark exposure of the rocket leaves contributed to preserve a lower microbiological growth and the green color: light presence highly influenced total bacterial count and Hue angle (p < 0.01). Treatments with acids can be recommended to preserve antioxidant compounds and color leaves: this factor also influenced other studied parameters as acidity, total bacterial count, and antioxidant activity (p < 0.01). The studied alternative dipping solutions and the storage in darkness involved a better quality of rocket up to 14 days of shelf life respect the commercial shelf life of 7 days.



Studies on the physicochemical characteristics of the New Zealand deer's tail, Cervus elaphus var. scoticus (III)

Abstract

This study was designed to determine the nutritional profile and functional components of the NZT (New Zealand deer's tail, Cervus elaphus var. scoticus Lönnberg). Twenty-nine fatty acids, eighteen amino acids, twenty-five minerals, chondroitin, and phospholipids were detected by the auto-fatty acid analyzer, auto-amino acid analyzer, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer, absorbance measurements, and by weighing after separating, respectively. 7-Ketocholesterol was isolated from alcohol extract by silica gel column chromatography analysis. Four steroid hormones (androstene-3,17-dione, β-estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone), one base and seven nucleosides, and N-acetylneuraminic acid were detected by a HPLC-photodiode array and HPLC-fluorescence detector. As a result, NZT was composed of many nutritional and functional ingredients found in New Zealand deer's antler (NZA) which was one of deer co-products, and it was considered that NZT could be a novel health food resource such as NZA.



Fermentation parameters, antioxidant capacities, and volatile flavor compounds of tomato juice–skim milk mixtures fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III

Abstract

This study evaluated the influence of tomato juice enriched with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III on the flavor and health-promoting effects of fermented skim milk. Fermentation parameters, such as titratable acidity, viable cell counts, antioxidant activity, and volatile components, were examined. The viable bacterial cell counts of 40% tomato juice samples were significantly higher than those in the control group, peaking at 1.09 × 109 CFU/mL after 48 h, and the titratable acidity was increased by 2.76-fold versus the control value. The antioxidant ability of fermented milk was correlated with the tomato juice content in addition to fermentation time in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assays; for these methods, the scavenging activities of 40% samples were 1.18- and 1.28-fold higher than the control values, respectively, at 24 h. Moreover, abundant flavor components, especially aldehydes, were detected after the addition of L. plantarum ST-III-supplemented tomato juice.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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