Τετάρτη, 5 Ιουνίου 2019

Air Quality, Atmosphere ,Health

Fragranced consumer products and effects on asthmatics: an international population-based study

Abstract

Asthma is an international concern, with risks linked to air pollutants. Fragranced consumer products, such as air fresheners and cleaning supplies, have been associated with health problems such as asthma attacks and breathing difficulties. This study investigates the health and societal effects of fragranced products on asthmatics in four countries: United States, Australia, United Kingdom, and Sweden. Nationally representative population surveys (n = 1137; 1098; 1100; 1100) found that, across the four countries, 26.0% of adults (n = 1151) are asthmatic, reporting medically diagnosed asthma (15.8%), an asthma-like condition (11.1%), or both. Among these asthmatics, 57.8% report adverse health effects, including asthma attacks (25.0%), respiratory problems (37.7%), and migraine headaches (22.6%), from exposure to fragranced products. In particular, 36.7% of asthmatics report health problems from air fresheners or deodorizers, 18.1% from the scent of laundry products coming from a dryer vent, 32.9% from being in a room cleaned with scented products, 38.7% from being near someone wearing a fragranced product, and 37.5% from other types of fragranced products. For 24.1% of asthmatics, health problems from fragranced products are potentially disabling. Further, 20.6% of asthmatics have lost workdays or lost a job, in the past year, due to fragranced product exposure in the workplace. Fragrance-free environments received widespread support. More than twice as many individuals, both asthmatics as well as non-asthmatics, would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, airplanes, and hotels were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. This study provides evidence that asthmatics can be profoundly, adversely, and disproportionately affected by exposure to fragranced consumer products. Moreover, the study points to a relatively straightforward and cost-effective approach to reduce risks; namely, to reduce exposure to fragranced products.



Household fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations from cooking fuels: the case in an urban setting, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia

Abstract

Household air pollution from biomass fuel is a main cause of health problem in Ethiopia, since 93% of households use solid fuel for cooking. Household air pollution studies are limited in Ethiopia. Therefore, we attempted to determine the level of household fine particulate matter concentrations from cooking fuels in Wolaita Sodo town, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was used to measure particulate matter (PM2.5) in 109 kitchens in randomly selected households. The University of California Berkeley particle monitor data logger devices were used for measuring the level of PM2.5 for the duration of 24 h based on the installation protocol. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the variation across fuel sources. Out of 109 households, 83 (76.15%) and 26 (23.85%) used predominately biomass fuel and mixed types fuel sources for cooking respectively. The overall geometric mean of PM2.5 was 413.27 μg/m3. The magnitude of PM2.5 from biomass fuel source was a mean (SD) of 926.34 μg/m3(899.00), followed by mixed type of fuel users, 279.42 μg/m3 (216.71). The median concentration of PM2.5 in all monitored households was 412.55 μg/m3. One-way ANOVA between fuel types was found to be statistically significant resulted in different mean concentration of particulate matter for both types of fuels used in households [P < 0.001]. PM2.5 was higher than the World Health Organization air quality guideline value. Therefore, supplying improved cook stoves and clean fuel sources is decisive intervention.



Change in fine particle-related premature deaths among US population subgroups between 1980 and 2010

Abstract

A multi-decade decline in the concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5) has benefited public health greatly by reducing the incidence of premature death and illnesses. A large body of literature has examined the change over time in this burden among the US population. However, less is known about these changes have affected subgroups most vulnerable and susceptible to poor air quality. In this study, we applied the results of an air quality prediction model that estimated changes in PM2.5 between 1980 and 2010 across all counties in the contiguous US. For the year 1980, we defined groups of vulnerable and susceptible populations according to attributes including county-level educational attainment, income, urbanicity, and all-cause death rate. Using a health impact function, we quantified PM2.5-attributable premature deaths for 1980 and 2010 among the overall US population as well as these subgroups. We then used the Atkinson index to explore the inequality in the absolute level and change in PM2.5 mortality among and between these subgroups. Between 1980 and 2010, total PM2.5 mortality risk declined for all groups. Risk inequality fell across all population groups and the risk experienced among each vulnerable and susceptible group became more equitably distributed. These results suggest that falling ambient PM2.5 concentrations over a 30-year period yield significant benefits among populations most susceptible and vulnerable to poor air quality. Furthermore, our results imply that policies including the Clean Air Act were effective at reducing health disparities.



Assessment of the tools to monitor air pollution in the Spanish ports system

Abstract

In general, seaports are located in urban areas or in their environs, whereby their activity has a very direct effect on the population. Therefore, reducing environmental contamination and improving air quality are priority management goals for port authorities (PAs). In Spain, the state-owned seaport system consists of 28 PAs that manage 46 ports. Its regulation received a major impulse through the enactment of the Spanish Ports Law in 2010. The law establishes especially the obligation that, annually, the PA prepare a sustainability report with 111 sustainability indicators. This study is founded on a database that was created with information from the reports from 2011 to 2016. A statistical analysis studies the evolution of the implementation of 20 measures for the reduction of atmospheric contamination in Spanish ports and identify the strategic lines carried out by the PAs and the measures adopted depending on the size of the ports.



Evaluating the colonization and distribution of fungal and bacterial bio-aerosol in Rajkot, western India using multi-proxy approach

Abstract

Bio-aerosol is an emerging pollutant of the technological age. Air pollution related episodes that are a region-specific phenomenon in our atmosphere, with bio-aerosols being the main area of the problem. The present research was focused on assessing the particulate, and culturable concentration of bacteria at five different spatially located sites in the Rajkot city and surroundings, in the western part of India. The highest (108.33 × 109 CFU m−3) and lowest (318 × 103 CFU m−3) bacterial concentrations were found in dump site and residential area, respectively. With reference to particulate concentration, higher (101.79 ± 8.09) concentrations were reported in the industrial area than other sampling locations. All sampling sites under the present study displayed greater variability of bacteria than that of particle concentration. The growth potential of various bacterial isolates from perspective bioaerosol was measured spectroscopically by measuring OD at 600 nm in rich medium. The isolate 1A displayed significantly higher growth compared to all other isolates after 24 h. Outcomes of the current work suggested that bacterial concentration was observed in the respirable fraction (< 2.5 μm) and so had the potential to penetrate the deeper part of the lungs. In addition, meteorological parameters (i.e., wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity) were measured to understand whether they had any effect on biotic matter. The temperature and relative humidity are the most important meteorological parameters responsible for the enhanced viability of bacteria. Land use and land cover feature were also studied to understand the spatial characteristics of bio-aerosol in the study area. This viewpoint summarizes available information on bio-aerosols and its impact on human health, devising strategies to understand characteristics of bio-aerosols and emphasizing the vital gaps in available knowledge such as to develop a relationship between biological agents and solid/liquid or a mixture of both to the assessment of dispersion behavior and toxicological nature during exposure.



Comparison of spatial patterns of ammonia concentration and dry deposition flux between a regional Eulerian chemistry-transport model and a local Gaussian plume model

Abstract

Agricultural activities are the principal sources of ammonia (NH3) emitted into the atmosphere. High ammonia deposition flux may impact sensitive ecosystems. Regional models of NH3 dispersion, transport and deposition may under- or overestimate NH3 fluxes. We compared NH3 dry deposition fluxes simulated with local and regional models on different theoretical scenarios characterised by varying the values of several input factors: grid cell sizes, characteristics of the NH3 sources such as location and emission rate, characteristics such as canopy resistance (Rc) or roughness length (z0) at the NH3 sinks, and meteorological conditions such as wind speed and direction. Our results showed that, for a given grid cell size, both models provide similar predictions of average NH3 concentration and dry deposition flux over the whole simulation domain. A sensitivity analysis of NH3concentration and dry deposition flux to wind speed and to surface resistance also showed a similar behaviour between both models. However, the differences of model formalism and changes in the values of the input factors, especially grid cell size and vertical resolution, provide different spatial patterns of NH3 dry deposition flux and concentration. Our results would suggest that regional models operating with large grid cell sizes (e.g. larger than 1 km) could not predict accurately patterns of NH3 dry deposition fluxes close to the sources (e.g. a few tens or hundreds of metres) on heterogeneous landscapes in terms of NH3 fluxes.



International prevalence of fragrance sensitivity

Abstract

Emissions and exposures from fragranced consumer products, such as air fresheners and cleaning supplies, have been associated with health problems and societal impacts. This study investigates effects of fragranced consumer products on the general population in four countries: United States, Australia, United Kingdom, and Sweden. Nationally representative population surveys (n = 1137; 1098; 1100; 1100) found that, across the four countries, 32.2% of adults (34.7%, 33.0%, 27.8%, 33.1% respectively) report fragrance sensitivity; that is, adverse health effects from fragranced consumer products. For instance, 17.4% report health problems from air fresheners or deodorizers, and 15.7% from being in a room cleaned with scented products. Commonly reported health problems include respiratory difficulties (16.7%), mucosal symptoms (13.2%), migraine headaches (12.6%), skin rashes (9.1%), and asthma attacks (7.0%). For 9.5% of the population, the severity of health effects can be considered disabling. Further, 9.0% of the population have lost workdays or lost a job, in the past year, due to illness from fragranced product exposure in the workplace. Personal estimated costs due to these lost workdays and lost jobs, across the four countries in one year, exceed $146 billion (USD). A majority of people across the countries would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. The study highlights a concern for public health and societal well-being, as well as an approach to reduce risks and costs: reduce exposure to fragranced products.



Highly size-resolved characterization of water-soluble inorganic ions in submicron atmospheric particles

Abstract

Up to date, few attentions have been given to the special characterization of water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIs) in the submicron atmospheric particles. In this study, to implement a highly size-resolved characterization of WSIs in the submicron atmospheric particles, ten sets of size-segregated submicron atmospheric particles were collected in Hangzhou (China) from November to December 2015, with cut-off diameters of 0.060, 0.108, 0.170, 0.260, 0.400, 0.650, and 1.000 μm. The particulate WSIs, including Cl, NO3, SO42−, Na+, NH4+, K+, and Ca2+ were analyzed by ion chromatography, and their mode distributions and potential sources were assessed. It was found that the particulate WSIs constituted a substantial part (40.4~70.9%) in each fraction of submicron particles, of which the secondary inorganic ions (SO42−, NO3, and NH4+) were the dominant species. The sulfur oxidation rate (SOR) and nitrogen oxidation rate (NOR) were increased when the submicron particles became coarser, indicating the enhanced secondary formation processes of SO42− and NO3 in the coarser submicron particles, thus resulting in the higher fractional contribution of secondary inorganic aerosols in the coarser submicron atmospheric particles. The correlation coefficients between K+ and Cl, NO3, and SO42− were 0.9293 (P = 0.002), 0.9702 (P < 0.001), and 0.9723 (P < 0.001), suggesting their dominant contribution from the biomass burning. Furthermore, it was found that PM0.4–1 (aerodynamic diameter of 0.400–1.000 μm) was a substantial part (66.6%) of submicron atmospheric particles. Compared to PM0.4 (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 0.400 μm), the concentration of WSIs in PM0.4–1 was prominently higher, and the secondary formation processes of SO42− and NO3 in PM0.4–1 were significantly enhanced.



Spatial patterns of conditions leading to peak O 3 concentrations revealed by clustering analysis of modeled data

Abstract

Air quality models are currently the best available tool to estimate ozone (O3) concentrations in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (MABA). While the DAUMOD-GRS has been satisfactorily evaluated against observations in the urban area, a Monte Carlo (MC) analysis showed that it is the region around the MABA, where the lack of observations impedes model testing, that concentrates not only the greatest estimated O3 peak levels but also the largest model uncertainty. In this work, we apply clustering analysis to these MC outcomes in order to study the spatial patterns of conditions leading to peak ozone hourly concentrations. Results show that families of conditions distribute, as emissions, radially around the city. A cluster exhibiting an O3 morning peak dominates in low-emission areas, a behavior that can be explained both from theory and from the few monitoring campaigns carried out in the city. Its distinct dynamics compared with the typical O3 diurnal profile occurring in the urban area suggests the need of new ozone measurements in the surroundings of the MABA which could contribute to improve our understanding of O3 formation drivers in this region. The results illustrate the potential of applying clustering analysis on large ensembles of modeled data to better understand the variability in model solutions.



Ozone pollution and asthma emergency department visits in Fresno, CA, USA, during the warm season (June–September) of the years 2005 to 2015: a time-stratified case-crossover analysis

Abstract

Fresno, located at the central part of the San Joaquin Valley (SJV), CA, USA, is one of the most air-polluted cities in North America. The present time-stratified case-crossover study investigates whether short-term exposure to ozone (O3) is associated with asthma emergency departments (ED) visits during the high O3 warm seasons (June–September) of 2005 to 2015 in Fresno, CA, USA. A total of 4463 ED visits from 2005 to 2015 in Fresno were identified. The potential effect modification by land use (commercial and residential), sex, race (White, Black, and Hispanic), and age (2–5, 6–18, 19–40, 41–64, and > = 65) was investigated. A 5 ppb increase in the concentration of O3 at the lag 0–14 was associated with 33.6% increase in the odds of having an asthma ED visit [OR 1.336 (95% confidence intervals 1.262, 1.414)]. People living in commercial areas (OR 1.470 (95% confidence intervals 1.353, 1.597) at lag 0–14) experienced higher odds of visiting the ED due to asthma when compared to those living in residential areas (OR 1.193 (95% confidence intervals 1.084, 1.313) at lag 0–14). Sex was not a modifier in this study. Blacks and Hispanics showed faster response to O3 exposure. The association between O3 exposure and asthma ED visits was positive among all age groups, but greater among 6 to 18 years. Ozone exposure is associated with asthma ED visits in Fresno during the warm seasons (June–September) of 2005 to 2015.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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