Κυριακή, 5 Μαΐου 2019

Sex Roles

How Does Traditional Masculinity Relate to Men and Women's Problematic Pornography Viewing?

Abstract

Problematic pornography viewing (PPV) is a growing concern. Based on a masculine gender role strain framework, individuals endorsing traditional masculinity ideology (TMI) may be especially drawn to pornography. However, relatively few studies have explored how TMI is related to PPV. Furthermore, no known studies have explored how these connections differ in men and women. To address these gaps, we conducted a large survey of 310 men and 469 women in the United States assessing multiple PPV and TMI dimensions. A bifactor structural equation model was used to regress PPV domains onto global and specific TMI factors. Invariance testing further examined the moderating effects of participants' gender in the model. Results indicated that global TMI was unrelated to men's PPV. However, men's dominance ideologies predicted greater functional problems and excessive pornography use. Men's restrictive emotionality and heterosexist ideologies predicted control difficulties with pornography use and using pornography to escape negative emotions. Additionally, men's avoidance of femininity ideology predicted excessive pornography use and control difficulties. For women, only global TMI was associated with functional problems. Invariance testing suggested the observed gender differences were not due to underlying discrepancies in the measurement of TMI or PPV. Clinical interventions for PPV that incorporate gender role themes are recommended.



Does Number of Children Moderate the Link between Intimate Partner Violence and Marital Instability among Chinese Female Migrant Workers?

Abstract

Intimate partner violence is a serious issue affecting migrant workers in China. The present study investigated the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of Chinese female migrant workers and examined the moderating role of number of children in the link between intimate partner violence and marital instability within the framework of social exchange theory. A total of 805 married female migrant workers responded to the Conflict Tactics Scales, the Marital Quality Scale, and a demographic data form. The results revealed that 37% of these women experienced intimate partner violence during last year. Regression analyses found a significant association between intimate partner violence and marital instability. More importantly, this association was moderated by their number of children. Intimate partner violence significantly predicted marital instability for childfree or one-child female migrant workers, but not for female migrant workers with two or more children. These results provide new insights on how having children influences female migrants' suffering IPV decision-making about whether to terminate their relationship. They also offer insights for intervention programs for victimized women.



Powerless Men and Agentic Women: Gender Bias in Hiring Decisions

Abstract

We examined male power-roles as a potential moderator of gender bias in hiring decisions. Drawing from previous work on perceptions of agentic women and precarious manhood theory, we predicted that men in low-power roles may react more negatively to agentic women compared to men in high-power roles. In two experiments, male participants evaluated résumés from male and female job candidates applying for a managerial position. Across experiments, results suggest that lacking power may facilitate biased hiring decisions. U.S. college men assigned to (Experiment 1, n = 83) or primed (Experiment 2, n = 84) with a low-power role rated the female applicant as less hireable and recommended a lower salary for her compared to the male applicant. This difference did not occur in the high-power or baseline conditions. A meta-analysis combining the results of both experiments confirmed that gender bias was limited to the low-power condition. Results are discussed in terms of powerlessness as a masculinity threat that may have downstream consequences for women.



Acquiescing to the Script: A Panel Study of College Students' Sexual Media Habits, Endorsement of Heteronormative Scripts, and Their Hesitance Toward Resisting Unwanted Hookups

Abstract

The present study set out to better understand how sexual entertainment media may be related to college students' heteronormative beliefs about sexuality and how these beliefs may be related to college students' hesitance toward resisting unwanted hookups. In a 2-month two-panel survey, cross-lagged models found 292 U.S. college women's sexual media habits were related to higher endorsement of heteronormative scripts, and their endorsement of heteronormative scripts were related to a hesitance toward resisting unwanted hookups. In addition, a half longitudinal mediation model found college women's sexual media habits were indirectly related to a greater hesitance toward resisting unwanted hookups through their endorsement of heteronormative scripts. The same analyses involving 88 U.S. college men were not significant, although the sample size for men did not reach the level needed for statistical power. These results provide some initial evidence that college women's, but not men's, hesitance toward resisting unwanted hookups could be related to beliefs reinforced by their habits regarding sexual entertainment media, which suggests the importance of educating young adult women about sexual agency, consent, and how to combat the role to which they are relegated within heteronormative scripts.



Celebrating the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Association for Women in Psychology: A Life in Feminist Psychology: A Long and Interesting Journey from Ft. Wayne to Newport (Herstory)

Abstract

The present commentary addresses the radical history of feminist psychology and the Association for Women in Psychology. In it, I explore innovations with roots in feminist psychology that have been adapted and co-opted by mainstream psychology, and I propose some future directions for deconstructing feminist psychology's remaining allegiances to the dominant cultures of academic psychology and psychotherapy.



Filtered Out, but Not by Skill: The Gender Gap in Pursing Mathematics at a High-Stakes Exam

Abstract

The present paper concerns the gender gap in pursuing mathematics at high stakes matriculation exams in Poland. Results of the optional Extended Exam in Mathematics (EEM) serve as the main criterion in entering tertiary education in majority of technical and engineering majors and, therefore, the exam works as an important filter for future career paths. We investigate whether the wide, gross difference between men and women in the propensity to take EEM can be mostly explained by an underlying skill difference, school effects, or other non-cognitive factors. We also test a skill immunization hypothesis which predicts that the gender gap declines at higher levels of mathematical skill. For those purposes we use official data from the 2016 matriculation exams covering the complete cohort of a quarter of a million students in more than 5000 schools. The results show that with skill and school effects roughly held constant, women are still much less likely to take EEM and the gender gap does not narrow on the upper tail of performance in mathematics. Furthermore, higher verbal skill draws women away from pursuing mathematics more strongly than it draws away men. These combined results imply that non-cognitive factors play a key role in self-selection processes and that STEM majors are at higher risk of losing mathematically gifted women than mathematically gifted men.



Internalised White Ideal, Skin Tone Surveillance, and Hair Surveillance Predict Skin and Hair Dissatisfaction and Skin Bleaching among African American and Indian Women

Abstract

Women of Colour are subject to unique pressures regarding their appearance due to racialised beauty standards and the pre-eminence of White features (e.g., skin tone and hair texture). Through associated self-objectification, Women of Colour can face negative outcomes, including negative thoughts and feelings about body features, and can engage in potentially dangerous behaviours like skin bleaching. The present research investigated the connection between internalisation of White beauty standards and Women of Colour's dissatisfaction with their skin and hair as well as their use of cosmetic products to attempt to meet White beauty ideals. Participants were 149 African American women from the United States and 168 Indian women living in India. Results reveal that internalisation of White beauty ideals predicted skin tone and hair texture dissatisfaction as well as skin bleaching. Results also suggest that these associations are indirectly mediated by surveillance of skin tone and hair texture. Findings are discussed in relation to self-objectification theory and representations of racialised beauty standards. These findings suggest that in order to reduce the negative effects of internalisation of White ideals on Women of Colour, White standards of beauty ought to be targeted and dismantled. Broadening of beauty standards and increasing positive media representations of Women of Colour may also be important.



Female Questionnaire of Trait Self-Objectification: Initial Development and Validation in China

Abstract

The present research involved the initial development and validation of the 17-item Female Questionnaire of Trait Self-Objectification (FQSO), which measures Chinese women's trait self-objectification. In Study 1 (n = 663), an exploratory factor analysis identified two dimensions underpinning the FQSO: Physical Appearance and Physical Competence. In Study 2 (n = 421), results from a confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the two-factor model of the FQSO was superior to a one-factor model. Further, in Study 3 (n = 421), the validity of all FQSO dimensions was supported via their relationship with the Revised Self-Objectification Questionnaire and other body-image measures. Lastly, the results of the Study 4 (n = 32) supported the stability of the FQSO over a 1-month period. Collectively, results indicate that the FQSO demonstrates adequate validity and reliability in assessing self-objectification in Chinese women who express more concerns about facial appearance and skin than about sex appeal, firm/sculpted muscles, or measurements.



Prejudice against Women Leaders: Insights from an Indirect Questioning Approach

Abstract

To avoid social disapproval in studies on prejudice against women leaders, participants might provide socially desirable rather than truthful responses. Using the Crosswise Model, an indirect questioning technique that can be applied to control for socially desirable responding, we investigated the prevalence of prejudice against women leaders in a German university community sample of 1529 participants. Prevalence estimates that were based on an indirect question that guaranteed confidentiality of responses were higher than estimates that were based on a direct question. Prejudice against women leaders was thus shown to be more widespread than previously indicated by self-reports that were potentially biased by social desirability. Whereas women showed less prejudice against women leaders, their responses were actually found to be more biased by social desirability, as indicated by a significant interaction between questioning technique and participants' gender. For men, prejudice estimates increased only slightly from 36% to 45% when an indirect question was used, whereas for women, prejudice estimates almost tripled from 10% to 28%. Whereas women were particularly hesitant to provide negative judgments regarding the qualities of women leaders, prejudice against women leaders was more prevalent among men even when gender differences in social desirability were controlled. Taken together, the results highlight the importance of controlling for socially desirable responding when using self-reports to investigate the prevalence of gender prejudice.



Comrades in the Struggle? Feminist Women Prefer Male Allies Who Offer Autonomy- not Dependency-Oriented Help

Abstract

Feminist women view feminist men who take a backseat and offer partial help (i.e., autonomy-oriented support) as better allies than those who attempt to solve the problem themselves and who impose their will on the movement (i.e., dependency-oriented support). We support this idea in two experiments (ns = 96; 270) conducted in the United States. Further, we show that this preference is limited to women who are most motivated to challenge gender inequality, that is, those who strongly identify with feminists (Study 2). Our findings are important because although men are more willing to challenge gender inequality if they identify with feminists (Wiley et al. 2013), not all allied support is wanted or even helpful (Droogendyk et al. 2016), and some feminist men run the risk of reinforcing the very gender hierarchy that they seek to dismantle. Our studies shift the focus in research on allied activism from whether men will support women when they challenge gender inequality to what kind of support women actually want. Implications for psychological research on intergroup relations and feminist scholarship are considered.



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