Τετάρτη, 15 Μαΐου 2019

Otolaryngology

Teaching nasal analysis to otolaryngology residents

Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019

Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology

Author(s): Katie Geelan-Hansen, Douglas Farquhar, Gita Fleischman, J. Madison Clark, William W. Shockley

Abstract
Purpose

This prospective cohort study was completed to evaluate a systematic approach for teaching nasal analysis to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents.

Methods

Residents from each post graduate year (PGY) were randomized to the control group or study group. Residents in the study group were given a 10-slide PowerPoint (Microsoft Corp) instruction on nasal analysis using the standard sequence of photographs and anatomic elements to describe in each view. All residents were given the standard sequence of photographs of 3 patients for assessment on nasal analysis. Then 12–14 weeks later all residents were re-evaluated using photographs of 3 new patients. The results were blinded and graded using an 18 point scale modified from a previous publication [1].

Results

Twenty otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents completed the study. Analysis was performed with and without multivariate regression modeling to adjust for PGY, gender, and number of rhinoplasties performed. The study group had overall higher scores in both the initial and follow up assessment, specifically with subsite-specific dorsal deviation, tip projection, and nostril symmetry. Neither group obtained high scores in facial symmetry, skin thickness, tip shape and contour, and radix position at initial or re-assessment.

Conclusion

Nasal analysis is a complex task. A lecture on a systemic approach to facial analysis given to a group of residents, who performed significantly better on facial analysis cases than controls. Further research in providing feedback, periods of rehearsal or testing, or focused selected elements with serial exposure can be considered.



Barometric pressure and the incidence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019

Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology

Author(s): Jonathan Korpon, Roy Sabo, Daniel H. Coelho

Abstract
Objectives

To investigate the relationship between barometric pressure and the incidence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).

Methods

181 patients diagnosed with classic BPPV seen between 2011 and 2016 were identified. Demographic information, data of onset, and date of presentation were recorded. Historical barometric data for each of the 60 months were recorded. In addition, monthly counts of other atmospheric, infectious, and allergic variables for that time period were recorded. Correlation analysis compared monthly incidence of BPPV with absolute and relative changes in atmospheric conditions.

Results

The incidence of BPPV onset demonstrated a statistically significant positive correlation with barometric pressure, where every one-unit increase in barometric pressure leads to an expected increase of 6.1 diagnoses (p = 0.0008). The correlation coefficient (r) between barometric pressure and BPPV diagnoses was 0.66 (95% CI 0.14–0.90) with a p-value of 0.0131. Other seasonal variables demonstrated correlation, though none as strong as barometric pressure.

Conclusions

Barometric pressure has been long been associated with conditions of the inner ear, though its relationship to the pathogenesis of BPPV has not been investigated. Monthly changes in barometric pressure, rather than the absolute value, may be responsible for the observed changes in incidence. These findings demonstrate a clear association between barometric pressure and BPPV that may help to explain both the etiology of BPPV and its possible connection to migraine-related conditions.



Thermal injury to common operating room materials by fiber optic light sources and endoscopes

Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019

Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology

Author(s): Earl Harley, Raluca Tavaluc, Navin Prasad

Abstract
Purpose

To determine the thermal energy damage potential by heat sources, such as endoscopes and fiber optic light cables, in contact with materials commonly placed around an operating room (OR) table.

Materials and method

Injury by xenon and halogen light sources were tested by direct and indirect contact using fiber optic light bundle cables and scopes at light intensities between ranging from Standby to 100%. The scopes had diameters ranging from 2.7 mm to 10 mm and were set at varying angles. The materials tested were surgical drapes, cotton towels, child shirts, child pants, lap sponges, X-ray detectable sponges, and Mayo covers. The damage potential was determined qualitatively by presence of smoking or smell of burning.

Results

Permutations involving direct contact were able to cause thermal injury, while permutations involving indirect contact, endoscopes, or halogen lamp were not. The xenon light source with the fiber optic light cable created thermal injury at light intensities of 50%, 75%, and 100%. Time to injury increased as light intensity was decreased. Only the surgical drape, child shorts, and cotton towel showed evidence of burn injury.

Conclusions

This report supports the potential for thermal injury to the patient secondary to fiber optic light sources, although this potential may be limited in extent. The injury risk can be reduced by avoiding direct contact to materials overlying the patient, confirming standby mode or 25% light intensity, and maintaining the endoscope connected to the fiber optic cable at all times.



3D-real IR MRI of Meniere's disease with partial endolymphatic hydrops

Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019

Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology

Author(s): Suming Shi, Feng Zhou, Wuqing Wang

Abstract
Objectives

A three-dimensional inversion-recovery sequence with real reconstruction (3D-real IR) sequence 4 h after intravenous gadolinium injection (IV) has been used to visualize the endolymphatic hydrops (ELH) in Meniere's disease (MD). This study was designed to explore the pathology of MD with partial ELH.

Methods

We collected 338 patients with definite MD, all of whom underwent the IV method. Patients who were found to have partial ELH (vestibular or cochlear) were enrolled. The hearing thresholds of the enrolled patients were analyzed, the regions of interest of the cochlear perilymph and the cerebellum white matter were determined, and the signal intensity ratio in the former to the latter (CC ratio) for both sides in the patients was subsequently evaluated.

Results

Of the 338 collected patients with definite MD, 19 patients (5.6%) had unilateral vestibular ELH (N = 18) or cochlear ELH (N = 1), and 4 patients (1.2%) with bilateral ELH had contralateral cochlear ELH. The CC ratio of the affected side (1.44 ± 0.46) was higher than that of the unaffected side (1.15 ± 0.33, P < 0.05) in the 19 patients with unilateral ELH. Conversely, there was no difference between the ratio of the contralateral side (1.18 ± 0.16) and the unaffected side (P > 0.05) in the 4 patients with bilateral ELH.

Conclusions

Partial vestibular ELH was more common than partial cochlear ELH in MD. Moreover, vestibular ELH, rather than cochlear ELH, may correlate with the elevated contrast effect in the affected side, which may better reflect the pathologic mechanism of MD.



Plunging ranula with lingual nerve tether: Case report and literature review

Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019

Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology

Author(s): Krish Suresh, Allen L. Feng, Mark A. Varvares

Abstract

Plunging ranulas are most often treated surgically; various surgical approaches may be necessary depending on the unique characteristics of each case. Here, we present the case of a plunging ranula noted on imaging to have a cordlike tether, which was revealed intraoperatively to be the lingual nerve. This case illustrates the importance of preoperative imaging for surgical planning, and when a transcervical approach may be the best choice for plunging ranulas.



The prognostic effect of anatomic subsite in HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019

Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology

Author(s): Tristan Tham, Michael Wotman, Ansley Roche, Dennis Kraus, Peter Costantino

Abstract
Background

Since most HPV-associated disease occurs in the tonsillar-related areas (TRA) – palatine and lingual tonsils, the effect of HPV on survival in non-tonsillar oropharyngeal subsites (nTRA) is not well established. The objective of this study was to use a large population-based cohort to investigate the survival impact of HPV in nTRA subsites versus TRA subsites.

Methods

This SEER database study was conducted by stratifying the HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer cohort into two primary groups, TRA and nTRA.

Results

HPV-positive squamous cell cancer was significantly more common in TRAs (73%) compared to nTRAs (31.2%, p < 0.001). After controlling for age, treatment, stage, race, and income, patients with HPV-positive disease in nTRAs had a worse cause-specific survival (CSS) than individuals with HPV-positive disease in TRAs (HR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.20–3.86, p = 0.01).

Conclusion

Patients with HPV-positive OPSCC in nTRAs had poorer survival outcomes compared to patients with HPV-positive OPSCC in TRAs.



Prognostic factors and survival for malignant conjunctival melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma over four decades

Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019

Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology

Author(s): Nicholas B. Abt, Jiawei Zhao, Yuru Huang, Allen O. Eghrari

Abstract
Purpose

To determine the epidemiology and survival of primary conjunctival malignant neoplasms.

Methods

Retrospective analysis of primary malignant conjunctival neoplasms using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from 1973 to 2012.

Results

Of 1661 cases, the most common neoplasms are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at 54.8% and melanoma at 38.8%. Mean diagnostic age for melanoma was 62.1 compared to 65.5 years for SCC (p = 0.002). 52.2% of melanoma are male versus 77.4% of SCC (p < 0.001). For SCC only age (HR: 1.09, 95% CI:1.04–1.14) is a predictor of survival. For melanoma, age (HR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.05–1.10), male sex (HR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.16–3.60), T4 tumors (HR: 3.38, 95% CI: 1.17–9.80) and N1 status (HR: 8.69, 95% CI: 2.75–27.42) are all survival predictors. The 5 and 10-year overall survival (OS) estimates are not significantly different between SCC and melanoma, with 70% and 50% respectively for SCC, and 71% and 50% respectively for melanoma. Median survival time is worse for blacks (52 months) compared to whites (118 months) and Asians/Native Americans/Pacific Islanders (145 months), however race was not found to be a significant prognostic factor in multivariate analysis. Five-year survival are similar between decades 1973–1982 (66.2%), 1983–1992 (69.2%), 1993–2002 (71.3%) and 2003–2012 (70.2%).

Conclusion

Age at diagnosis is a determinant of survival for both conjunctival SCC and melanoma. Male sex, T4 and N1 staging are also important prognostic factors for melanoma. With respect to overall survival, SCC and melanoma did not differ significantly.



Post-operative epiphora following the transcutaneous medial canthal incision

Publication date: Available online 14 May 2019

Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology

Author(s): Mark A. Prendes, John Mittel, Peter J. Timoney, Christopher J. Compton, Jeremy D. Clark, William R. Nunery, Jonathan Y. Ting, Taha Z. Shipchandler, H.B. Harold Lee

Abstract
Purpose

The safety profile of the transcutaneous medial canthal incision for access to the medial orbit is assessed with a focus on the risk of post-operative iatrogenic epiphora.

Methods

A retrospective chart review of patients undergoing medial orbitotomy via the transcutaneous medial canthal incision was performed. Patients with a minimum of 3 months of follow-up were included and post-operative complications were assessed and characterized.

Results

One-hundred-fifty patients were included in the study. A total of 4 complications were identified, including one each of the following: nasolacrimal duct obstruction, hypertrophic scar, suture granuloma and soft tissue infection. Only the nasolacrimal duct obstruction required surgical intervention.

Discussion

Access to the medial orbit has been achieved through a variety of approaches, each with their own benefits and risk profile. The transcaruncular approach has increased in usage as a means to avoid a visible cutaneous scar and decrease the risk of iatrogenic epiphora, however, there are specific patients who may have relative contraindications to this approach. The current study demonstrates the low risk profile of the transcutaneous medial canthal incision, specifically the minimal risk of iatrogenic damage to the nasolacrimal outflow system. This approach is another useful tool which orbit surgeons should be familiar with to offer as an option to patients requiring medial orbitotomy.



Efficacy analysis of medical and surgical treatments in chronic kidney disease patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism

Publication date: Available online 14 May 2019

Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology

Author(s): Yajing Huang, Hao Wu, Yaqun Wu, Zhiyong Luo

Abstract
Purpose

To investigate the effects of surgical and medical treatments on chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT).

Materials and methods

A total of 198 CKD patients with SHPT were identified at Tongji Hospital from January 2013 to June 2017.

Results

Surgical group (53 patients) received maintenance dialysis for 78.0 ± 4.9 months, while medical group (84 patients) for 62.0 ± 6.4 months. The serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) in surgical group reduced apparently compared with medical group (P = 0.015) and maintained satisfied result during three years of follow-up (67.4 ± 7.4 pg/ml). The recurrence rate in surgical group was 7.5% and in medical group was 15.5% (P = 0.024). Beyond that, 5 (5.9%) patients suffered persistent hyperparathyroidism in medical group.

Conclusion

Although the progress of medical treatment is changing rapidly, surgical treatment is still an effective way to control serum iPTH and calcium chronically for SHPT patients. Complex SHPT patients can also receive satisfied effect by surgical treatment, without apparently increasing the risk of complications.



The case of the eyelid silicone granulomas

Publication date: Available online 14 May 2019

Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology

Author(s): Jacqueline A. Wulu, Laura Garcia-Rodriguez, Andrey Prilutskiy, Jeffrey Spiegel

Abstract

Foreign body granulomas can develop even several years after autologous fat or filler injection. In some instances the foreign body granulomas have been found at sites other than the original injection site. We present a case of a 48-year-old male with reported "hyaluronic acid fillers" injected into his upper and lower eyelids several years prior. He subsequently developed periorbital swelling with negative allergic and rheumatologic workup. The patient ultimately underwent a blepharoplasty for improvement of the swelling. Histopathology suggested silicone granulomas of the upper and lower eyelid. This case illustrates the importance of keeping foreign body granulomas on the differential for all patients with a history of facial dermal filler injections. Although hyaluronic acid is the most common dermal filler, providers should suspect the use of other dermal fillers including those not FDA approved particularly when common conservative treatment methods are not sufficient.



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