Παρασκευή, 17 Μαΐου 2019

Oral Health Sciences

President's message
K Sadashiva Shetty

International Journal of Oral Health Sciences 2019 9(1):1-1



Secretary's message
IM Ali

International Journal of Oral Health Sciences 2019 9(1):2-2



Oral health and overall health
K Ravindra

International Journal of Oral Health Sciences 2019 9(1):3-3



Editorial
C Shubha

International Journal of Oral Health Sciences 2019 9(1):4-4



Estimation of salivary flow in oral submucous fibrosis patients using vibrotactile stimulation
Apurva Prashant Deshpande, Kajal V Gokak, Sagar Jalihal, Anjana Bagewadi

International Journal of Oral Health Sciences 2019 9(1):5-8

Introduction: Xerostomia is encountered commonly in dentistry and also features in oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), due to fibrosis and hyalinization in and around salivary glands. Vibrotactile stimulation of salivary glands is a new reliable noninvasive method for stimulation of saliva. Purpose: The aim of this research is to determine the efficacy of vibrotactile stimulation in increasing salivary secretions. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted on 20 individuals with OSMF and equal control group. Resting saliva was measured by asking the participants to accumulate saliva in the mouth for 3 min and then collect it in a container by spitting method. Later, masseter muscles were stimulated by extraoral vibrations of 90 Hz frequency through the apparatus for 3 min and stimulated saliva was collected immediately in a container. The volume of the stimulated and resting saliva was then compared. Results: The study comprised of majority male subjects with average age of 35 years. On vibrotactile stimuli, there was a rise in stimulated saliva in both the groups with a statistically significant P value. Conclusion: Although there is saliva blockage due to the fibrosis in minor salivary glands (MSGs) and ducts of major salivary glands in OSMF, this study showed increased salivary flow upon vibratory stimuli. Increase in salivation is assumed to be from tonic vibration reflex (TVR) of muscles and conduction of vibrations by the bone till the major salivary glands and MSG. The reported apparatus can be used to stimulate salivary flow by patients itself without any need of assistance. 


Effect of ozonated water on dentin bond strength
Attiguppe R Prabhakar, Ravi S Kumar, Divya Prahlad

International Journal of Oral Health Sciences 2019 9(1):9-14

Objective: Residual bacteria under restorations can survive and proliferate even in the presence of a good seal. This can be prevented using adjunctive treatment with antibacterial agents during dentin bonding. However, its use can interfere with the bonding process. The current research was designed to study the influence of pretreatment with 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gluconate (Consepsis), and ozonated water on shear bond strength, and microleakage of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) to primary tooth dentin. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six noncarious primary molars were selected, and the study was conducted in two parts as follows: evaluation of (1) Shear bond strength and (2) Microleakage. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups as follows: group I – Distilled water (control), Group II – 2% CHX gluconate, and Group III – ozonated water. The shear bond test was done using a Universal Testing Machine (Instron, USA). The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA for multiple group comparisons and post hoc Tukey's for group-wise comparison. Microleakage was evaluated using stereo microscope. The results were statistically analyzed using the Chi-square test for group-wise comparison. Results: Bond strength was comparable across the three groups with distilled water showing the highest bond strength values followed by ozone group and 2% CHX group. CHX group showed significantly greater microleakage when compared with that of the ozone group. Interpretation and Conclusion: Ozonated water did not affect the shear bond strength or the sealing ability of RMGIC to primary tooth dentin, and hence is a viable option for cavity disinfection. 


Relationship of salivary levels of sialic acid in obese patients with chronic periodontitis: A biochemical study
Vivek Kumar, Amrita , Gargee Rawat, Mahendra Pratap, Gaurav Kumar, Anshul Verma

International Journal of Oral Health Sciences 2019 9(1):15-19

Background: Sialic acid (SA) participates in multiple physiological functions, such as cell-to-cell interactions, cell migration, and proliferation. The levels of SA may provide intimation about the severity and state of underlying disease processes. Hence, the aim of the present study was to assess the salivary levels of SA in obese patients with and without chronic periodontitis (CP) and nonobese healthy patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 patients were divided into three groups: Group 1: nonobese healthy, Group 2: obese without CP, and Group 3: obese with CP. Whole saliva samples were collected, and SA levels were evaluated using the thiobarbituric acid method of Skoza and Mohos. The results were analyzed using SPSS and Mann–Whitney analysis. Results: The highest SA levels from the saliva were detected in Group 3 while the lowest in Group 1. A significant difference in SA levels in the saliva was found when Groups 1 and 2 were compared with Group 3 (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The level of SA was higher in the saliva of CP patients. SA may be used as an inflammatory marker for the detection of periodontal disease. 


Evaluation of biological effects of X-radiography and computed tomography scan on oral microflora
Ali Abdul Hussein S Al-Janabi, Mohammid Hamid H AI-Baghdadi

International Journal of Oral Health Sciences 2019 9(1):20-24

Introduction: X-ray is the most valuable tool for diagnosis of various diseases. Its radiation energy has a serious effect on living cells. The effects of X-radiography and computed tomography (CT) scans on the viability of oral microflora in the human were investigated. Methods: A total of 432 patients in two groups exposed to X-radiation were included in a cohort study. Group I (215) was exposed to X-radiography and Group II (217) to CT scan. Swab samples from the oral cavity were collected. Viability of normal oral flora in those patients was measured by microbial counting before and after exposure. Results: Radiation of X-ray techniques, especially for CT scan, showed an effect on most of bacterial multiplication by increasing their count after exposure. Meanwhile, fungal isolates and one of the bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) were decreased in number after exposure. Some isolates were not affected by radiation from X-radiography. Conclusion: Radiation of routinely diagnostic X-ray found to play an important role in disturbance of microbial counting balance among oral flora through increasing the density of most kinds of them. Limitation of X-ray exposure is a safety precaution that should be taken to prevent adverse effects on normal flora of the human body. 


Toothbrush bristles, a harbor of microbes and the risk of infection
Philip Asumang, Samuel Eguasi Inkabi, Shirley Inkabi

International Journal of Oral Health Sciences 2019 9(1):25-27

Microbes survive in a wide variety of environments, including toothbrush bristles regardless where they are kept once they are unsterilized. Toothbrush bristles serve unintentionally a great source of favorable condition for the growth and survival of microorganisms. Conducting a literature review of previous studies, we explored the microbial contamination of toothbrush bristles occurrence, and the risks this poses for disease infections in susceptible individuals in this review article. 


Oral field cancerization: Tracking the invisible
Harsha Mallegowda, Ruthushree Theresa, Vikram S Amberkar

International Journal of Oral Health Sciences 2019 9(1):28-35

Cancer is one of the most common diseases affecting humans worldwide, despite latest advances made in molecular and cell biology, how cancer cells progress through carcinogenesis and acquire their metastatic ability is still questionable. Oral cavity is one of the commonest site for potentially malignant disorders. These pre-malignant pathologies may progress to dysplastic lesions then to invasive carcinomas.The presence of one or more mucosal areas consisting of epithelial cells that have cancer-associated genetic or epigenetic alterations.The prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma patients is adversely influenced by development of a new tumor. This review highlights the pathophysiological changes during field cancerization 



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