Δευτέρα, 13 Μαΐου 2019

Ecotoxicology

Spatial variation in aquatic invertebrate and riparian songbird mercury exposure across a river-reservoir system with a legacy of mercury contamination

Abstract

Mercury (Hg) loading and methylation in aquatic systems causes a variety of deleterious effects for fish and wildlife populations. Relatively little research has focused on Hg movement into riparian food webs and how this is modulated by habitat characteristics. This study characterized differences in Hg exposure in aquatic invertebrates and riparian songbirds across a large portion of the Willamette River system in western Oregon, starting at a Hg-contaminated Superfund site in the headwaters (Black Butte Hg Mine) and including a reservoir known to methylate Hg (Cottage Grove Reservoir), all downstream reaches (Coast Fork and Willamette River) and off-channel wetland complexes (Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex). After accounting for year, date, and site differences in a mixed effects model, MeHg concentrations in aquatic invertebrates varied spatially among habitat categories and invertebrate orders. Similarly, THg in songbird blood varied by among habitat categories and bird species. The highest Hg concentrations occurred near the Hg mine, but Hg did not decline linearly with distance from the source of contamination. Birds were consistently elevated in Hg in habitats commonly associated with enhanced MeHg production, such as backwater or wetlands. We found a positive but weak correlation between aquatic invertebrate MeHg concentrations and songbird THg concentrations on a site-specific basis. Our findings suggest that Hg risk to riparian songbirds can extend beyond point-source contaminated areas, highlighting the importance of assessing exposure in surrounding habitats where methylmercury production may be elevated, such as reservoirs and wetlands.



Chronic toxicity and biochemical response of Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae) exposed to acetamiprid and propiconazole alone or combined

Abstract

Acetamiprid and ergosterol-inhibiting fungicide (EBI) are frequently applied to many flowering plants, while honey bees are pollinating agents or pollinators of the flowers. Hence honey bees are often exposed to these pesticides. But until now, the effects of theses combinations at field-realistic doses on honey bee health have been poorly investigated. In this study, we explore the synergistic mortality and some physiological effects in surviving honey bees after chronic oral exposure to acetamiprid and/or propiconazole in the laboratory. The results indicated that chronic combined exposure to acetamiprid and propiconazole produced a significant synergistic effect on mortality both for newly emerged bees (50% mortality in 7.2 days) and forager bees (50% mortality in 4.8 days). Honey bee weight of newly emerged bees was decreased after feeding food with a field concentration of acetamiprid and propiconazole, alone or combined for 10 days. Combination of acetamiprid and propiconazole also modulated the activities of P450s, GST and CAT in newly emerged bees and forager bees than either alone, but neither pesticide affected the activity of AChE. These results show that chronic combined exposure to pesticides of relatively low toxicity may caused severely physiological disruptions that could be potentially damaging for the honey bees.



Autotoxicity of root exudates varies with species identity and soil phosphorus

Abstract

Root exudate autotoxicity (i.e. root exudates from a given plant have toxic effects on itself) has been recognized to be widespread. Here we examined how plant species identity and soil phosphorus (P) availability influenced this autotoxicity and the possible stoichiometric mechanisms. We conducted an experiment with three species (Luctuca sativaSesbania cannabina, and Solidago canadensis), which were subject to four treatments consisting of activated carbon (AC) and soil P. AC addition increased the whole-plant biomass of each species under high P conditions and this AC effect varied strongly with species identity. For Solidago, the relative increase in whole-plant biomass due to AC addition was larger in the low P than in the high P. Root exudate autotoxicity differed between roots and shoots. AC addition decreased root N:P ratios but failed to influence shoot N:P ratios in three species. These findings suggest that soil P enrichment might mediate root exudate autotoxicity and that this P-mediated autotoxicity might be related to root N and P stoichiometry. These patterns and their implications need to be addressed in the context of plant communities.



Impacts of sulfanilamide and oxytetracycline on methane oxidation and methanotrophic community in freshwater sediment

Abstract

Methanotrophs are of great significance for the abatement of methane emission from anoxic environments. Antibiotics are ubiquitous in the environment and can affect microbial activity and community density and composition. However, information about the effect of antibiotics on methanotrophs is still lacking. The current study explored the influences of sulfonamides and tetracyclines on methane oxidation potential (MOP) and methanotrophic density and community structure in freshwater sediment microcosms. The addition of both sulfanilamide (SA) and oxytetracycline (OTC) could increase MOP and particulate methane monooxygenasesubunit A (pmoA) gene density but decrease the number of pmoA transcripts. Both SA and OTC could also have impacts on sediment methanotrophic community structure. The antibiotic effects on MOP and methanotrophs were found to depend on the dosage and type of antibiotics. This work could provide some new insights towards the links between methane oxidation and antibiotics.



Heavy metals transported through a multi-trophic food chain influence the energy metabolism and immune responses of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri

Abstract

Contamination of environment with heavy metals is increasingly becoming an issue of major concern across the globe. Heavy metals are highly toxic to humans as well as other organisms of the ecosystem. The translocation of heavy metals from soil to predatory insects via multi-tophic food chains can influence the growth, reproduction, metabolism and innate immune systems of the predators. This study was performed to observe the changes in energy metabolism and immune responses of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri feeding on heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn) contaminated pink hibiscus mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes). The average concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in mealybugs used for feeding assays were 30.57, 32.64, 31.47 and 33.19 mg/kg, respectively. The results showed a significant increase in total protein, glycogen, cholesterol and triglycerides content of Cmontrouzieri feeding on heavy metals contaminated mealybugs compared with control groups. The activities of endogenous enzymes (acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase) as well as antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD and CAT) were significantly higher in beetles feeding on heavy metals contaminated mealybugs. Our results provide basic insight into the influences of heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Ni) on energy metabolism and the innate immune system of the insect predator (Cmontrouzieri) in a multi-trophic food chain. Further research on genetic processes involved in the regulation of metabolism and innate immune system of Cmontrouzieri is still needed.



Chromate detoxification potential of Staphylococcus sp. isolates from an estuary

Abstract

Chromium (Cr) pollution is an emerging environmental problem. The present study was carried out to isolate Cr-resistant bacteria and characterize their Cr detoxification and resistance ability. Bacteria screened by exposure to chromate (Cr6+) were isolated from Mandovi estuary Goa, India. Two isolates expressed high resistance to Cr6+ (MIC ≥ 300 µg mL−1), Cr3+ (MIC ≥ 900 µg mL−1), other toxic heavy metals and displayed a pattern of resistance to cephalosporins and ß-lactams. Biochemical and 16 S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that both isolates tested belonged to the Staphylococcus genus and were closely related to S. saprophyticusand S. arlettae. Designated as strains NIOER176 and NIOER324, batch experiments demonstrated that both removed 100% of 20 and 50 µg mL−1 Cr6+ within 4 and 10 days, respectively. The rate of reduction in both peaked at 0.260 µg mL−1 h−1ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene involved in transport of a variety of substrates including efflux of toxicants was present in strain NIOER176. Through SDS-PAGE analysis, whole-cell proteins extracted from both strains indicated chromium-induced specific induction and up-regulation of 24 and 40 kDa proteins. Since bacterial ability to ameliorate Cr6+ is of practical significance, these findings demonstrate strong potential of some estuarine bacteria to detoxify Cr6+ even when its concentrations far exceed the concentrations reported from many hazardous effluents and chromium contaminated natural habitats. Such potential of salt tolerant bacteria would help in Cr6+ bioremediation efforts.



Transgenerational sublethal effects of abamectin and pyridaben on demographic traits of Phytonemus pallidus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae)

Abstract

In addition to determining the lethal effects, identifying sublethal effects of a pesticide is crucial to understanding the total impact a pesticide may have on a pest population. We determined the sublethal effects the two pesticides, abamectin and pyridaben, have on the cyclamen mite, Phytonemus pallidus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae)—a major pest of strawberry. Demographic traits of the P. pallidus progeny (F1 generation) produced by parents (F0 generation) treated with a low lethal concentration (LC15) of abamectin and pyridaben were assessed using the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. The total longevity of the F1 generation (males = 10.78 days; female = 14.35 days) was the shortest in the progeny of the abamectin treated parents, differing significantly from the progeny of mites treated with pyridaben (males = 11.50 days, females = 15.63 days), and the control population (males = 13.50 days, females = 17.81 days). The intrinsic rates of increase (r) and the finite rates of increase (λ) of the progeny of abamectin (r = 0.0854 day−1λ = 1.0891 day−1) and pyridaben (r = 0.0951 day−1λ = 1.0997 day−1) treated parents were significantly lower than in the control mites (r = 0.1455 day−1λ = 1.1567 day−1). The lowest fecundity (5.35 eggs/female), occurred in F1 female offspring of parents treated with LC15concentrations of abamectin, which was significantly lower than in the pyridaben (6.11 eggs/female) and control treatments (11.45 eggs/female). Transgenerational sublethal effects of abamectin and pyridaben in P. palliduscan be effectively used to for optimizing IPM programs against this pest on strawberries.



Persistent organic pollutants in lakes of Broknes peninsula at Larsemann Hills area, East Antarctica

Abstract

Anthropogenic activity in East Antarctica has increased since the last 2–3 decades because of various scientific expeditions. Additionally, global pollution due to various newly introduced pollutants like pesticides is on use since the past century and many factors contribute to contamination even in Antarctica. During thirty fourth Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA) in austral summer of 2014–2015, fifteen lake water samples were collected from five different lakes at Broknes peninsula, Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) residue levels found in lake water samples varied from 10.33–70.00 pg/mL in five different lakes. Presence of p,p'-DDT was detected in all different lakes but high concentration found in P4 lake water. After study confirms that Broknes peninsula in the Larsemann Hills area, East Antarctica has a trace amount of POPs which is an alarming situation and needs to be investigated further to maintain the pristine environment in Antarctica. The presence of POPs may be attributed to orographic effects, migratory birds, biomagnification and anthropogenic sources. In the future, new emerging pollutants must be analyzed like microplastics, phthalate, Paraxanthene etc.



Direct and indirect effects of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the decomposition of leaf litter in streams

Abstract

As the production of metallic nanoparticles has grown, it is important to assess their impacts on structural and functional components of ecosystems. We investigated the effects of zinc and titanium nanoparticles on leaf decomposition in freshwater habitats. We hypothesized that nanoparticles would inhibit the growth and activity of microbial communities leading to decreased decomposition rates. We also hypothesized that under natural light, the nanoparticles would produce reactive oxygen species that could potentially accelerate decomposition. In the lab, whole Ficus vasta leaves were placed in containers holding one liter of stream water and exposed to either 0, 1, 10 or 100 mg/L of ZnO or TiO2 nanoparticles for six weeks (referred to as Exp. 1). We measured leaf mass loss, microbial metabolism, and bacterial density at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. In a second experiment (referred to as Exp. 2), we measured the effects of light and 10 and 100 mg/L ZnO or TiO2 nanoparticles on leaf mass loss, bacterial density and the bacterial and fungal community diversity over a 2 week period. In Experiment 1, mass loss was significantly reduced at 10 and 100 mg/L after 6 weeks and bacterial density decreased at 100 mg/L. In Experiment 2, there was no effect of ZnO nanoparticles on leaf mass loss, but TiO2nanoparticles significantly reduced mass loss in the dark but not in the light. One possible explanation is that release of reactive oxygen species by the TiO2 nanoparticles in the light may have increased the rate of leaf decomposition. Bacterial and fungal diversity was highest in the dark, but nanoparticles did not reduce overall diversity.



Development of marine water quality criteria for inorganic mercury in China based on the retrievable toxicity data and a comparison with relevant criteria or guidelines

Abstract

The development of marine water quality criteria (WQC) in China has been insufficient because data on the toxicity of pollutants for marine organisms based on the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) method are lacking. The Chinese aquatic environmental quality standards, including those for seawater, were derived from the developed countries. Therefore, establishing Chinese marine WQC is crucial for identifying the sensitivity of marine species in China and will improve their protection from threats. Mercury (Hg) is one of the primary pollutants commonly exceeding Chinese seawater quality standards. Several countries have developed their marine WQC for inorganic Hg in the past decades, but no study has been conducted in China. In this study, 45 acute toxicity and 14 chronic toxicity data of inorganic Hg on the marine species which inhabit in China were obtained mainly from the ECOTOX database, the CNKI, and the Google Scholar. The acute and chronic hazardous concentrations for 5% of the species (HC5) were calculated based on the best-fit distribution model Sweibull. The criteria for maximum and continuous concentrations of 1.30 and 0.66 μg/L, respectively, for inorganic Hg to protect marine organisms in China were derived by halving the HC5 values. The criteria were comparable to those of the United States, Australia, and the European Union countries, indicating the general applicability of WQCs developed based on the classical SSD method using different species groups. This study may provide valuable information for assessing marine ecological risk in China.



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