Παρασκευή, 3 Μαΐου 2019

Anxiety Disorders

Self- and other-perceptions of interpersonal problems: Effects of generalized anxiety, social anxiety, and depression

Publication date: June 2019

Source: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Volume 65

Author(s): Ki Eun Shin, Michelle G. Newman

Abstract

Despite attention on overlap and distinction between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and major depressive disorder (MDD), interpersonal specificity (distinct, prototypical interpersonal features) between the disorders has been understudied. There is emerging evidence for such specificity (e.g., Erickson et al., 2016), but most studies relied on self-report, and not all studies controlled for shared variance between the disorders, complicating interpretation of findings. The present study extended the literature by examining unique interpersonal correlates of GAD, SAD, and MDD symptoms on self- and informant-report, and how self-informant agreement (both mean-level and correlation) in perception of interpersonal affiliation, dominance, and distress varied as a function of the symptoms. 369 college-aged participants (43% with clinical-level symptoms for at least one of the disorders (GAD, SAD, MDD), 57% non-disordered) and up to three of their significant others rated participants' interpersonal problems (interpersonal behaviors that were difficult to engage in or engaged in excessively). We found evidence for exploitable tendencies in GAD, socially avoidant and nonassertive tendencies in SAD, and coldness in MDD based on self-report, but not on informant-report. Although self-other correlation was positive across outcomes, participants endorsed higher affiliation and interpersonal distress and lower dominance relative to informants. GAD, SAD, and MDD symptoms showed distinct moderating effects on these self-informant discrepancies. GAD symptoms predicted over-endorsing affiliation, SAD predicted under-endorsing dominance and affiliation, and MDD predicted no discrepancies in affiliation and dominance. The results speak to potential differentiation of the disorders based on distinct patterns of self-other discrepancy in interpersonal perceptions.



Heart rate variability in patients with agoraphobia with or without panic disorder remains stable during CBT but increases following in-vivo exposure

Publication date: May 2019

Source: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Volume 64

Author(s): Jennifer Lara Maria Mumm, Lena Pyrkosch, Jens Plag, Patrick Nagel, Moritz Bruno Petzold, Sophie Bischoff, Lydia Fehm, Thomas Fydrich, Andreas Ströhle

Abstract

Patients with anxiety disorders have a lower heart rate variability (HRV) than healthy controls. Low HRV is associated with cardiovascular disease and dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The aim of the present study was to investigate if HRV in patients with agoraphobia with or without panic disorder can be influenced by cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). 73 patients with agoraphobia with or without panic disorder were included in the study. Heart rate (HR) and HRV were recorded at rest before and after CBT and during in-vivo exposure. No changes in HR and HRV were observed throughout therapy. During in-vivo exposure HRV increased significantly and HR exhibited a tendency to decrease. Despite clinical improvement of anxiety symptoms, ANS activity at rest did not seem to be influenced by CBT. However, during in-vivo exposure, HRV changed significantly, indicating a higher parasympathetic activity at the end of exposure.



Do men and women arrive, stay, and respond differently to cognitive behavior group therapy for social anxiety disorder?

Publication date: May 2019

Source: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Volume 64

Author(s): Maya Asher, Haggai Hermesh, Shay Gur, Sofi Marom, Idan Aderka



Measuring treatment outcome in patients with anxiety disorders: A comparison of the responsiveness of generic and disorder-specific instruments

Publication date: May 2019

Source: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Volume 64

Author(s): S.J. Schawo, I.V.E. Carlier, A.M. van Hemert, E. de Beurs

Abstract
Background

For routine outcome monitoring, generic (i.e., broad-based) and disorder-specific instruments are used to monitor patient progress. While disorder-specific instruments may be more sensitive to therapeutic change, generic measures can be applied more broadly and allow for an assessment of therapeutic change, irrespective of a specific anxiety disorder. Our goal was to investigate whether disorder-specific instruments for anxiety disorders are a valuable (or even necessary) addition to generic instruments for an appropriate assessment of treatment outcome in groups of patients.

Methods

Data were collected from 2002 to 2013 from psychiatric outpatients in treatment for Social Phobia (SP; n = 834), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD; n = 661), Panic Disorder (PD; n = 944), Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD; n = 460), and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD; n = 691). Instruments used were the generic Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), The Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ), and several disorder-specific instruments (e.g., Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Scale, Panic Appraisal Inventory, etc.). Responsiveness (i.e., sensitivity to therapeutic change) was examined through correlational analyses, effect sizes (ES), and analysis of variance for repeated measures.

Results

The MASQ appeared generally more responsive than the BSI, except for the BSI Anxiety subscale for PD. Disorder-specific measures equaled the MASQ and BSI in responsiveness. When statistically significant differences occurred, the ES was small.

Discussion/conclusions

For most anxiety disorder groups (i.e., SP, PD and OCD), the MASQ or BSI was equally suited as disorder-specific instruments to detect change at group level. Exceptions are GAD and PTSD. These findings suggest limited incremental information value of disorder-specific instruments over the MASQ and BSI for measuring change.



A randomized controlled trial of prolonged exposure therapy versus relaxation training for older veterans with military-related PTSD

Publication date: May 2019

Source: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Volume 64

Author(s): Steven R. Thorp, Lisa H. Glassman, Stephanie Y. Wells, Kristen H. Walter, Heather Gebhardt, Elizabeth Twamley, Shahrokh Golshan, James Pittman, Kendra Penski, Carolyn Allard, Leslie A. Morland, Julie Wetherell

Abstract
Objective

Although prolonged exposure (PE) has strong support for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is little research on PE for older adults. Likewise, Relaxation Training (RT) has shown some benefit for PTSD, but has not been adequately tested in this population.

Method

This study represents the first randomized controlled trial of two active psychotherapies for PTSD among older adults. Male combat veterans (N = 87; mean age = 65 years) were randomly assigned to 12 sessions of PE (n= 41) or RT (n = 46). Clinician-administered and self-report assessments were conducted at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and six-month follow-up; self-reported symptoms were also measured at each treatment session.

Results

Multi-level modeling indicated that Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale scores significantly decreased from pre-treatment to follow-up, but the time by treatment condition interaction was not significant. Pre- to post-treatment change was large in PE and moderate in RT, but many gains were lost at follow-up. For self-reported PTSD symptoms, a significant time by treatment condition interaction emerged, suggesting that participants who received PE had both greater decreases in symptoms and a greater rebound in self-reported PTSD symptoms than those who received RT. Unlike PTSD symptoms, depression symptoms neither changed nor were moderated by treatment condition from pre-treatment to follow-up. For self-reported PTSD and depression symptoms assessed at each session, time significantly predicted symptom reductions across psychotherapy sessions.

Conclusions

PE and RT are well-tolerated, feasible, and effective for older adults, though treatment gains were not maintained at follow-up.

Trial registration

clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00539279.



External validation of the International Risk Prediction Algorithm for the onset of generalized anxiety and/or panic syndromes (The Predict A) in the US general population

Publication date: May 2019

Source: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Volume 64

Author(s): Yeshambel T. Nigatu, JianLi Wang

Abstract
Introduction

Multivariable risk prediction algorithms are useful for making clinical decisions and health planning. While prediction algorithms for new onset of anxiety disorders in Europe and elsewhere have been developed, the performance of these algorithms in the Americas is not known. The objective of this study was to validate the PredictA algorithm for new onset of anxiety and/or panic disorders in the US general population.

Methods

Longitudinal study design was conducted with approximate 2-year follow-up data from a total of 24 626 individuals who participated in Wave 1 and 2 of the US National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and who did not have generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder in the past year at Wave 1. The PredictA algorithm was directly applied to the selected participants.

Results

Among the participants, 5.4% developed GAD and/or panic disorder over two years. The PredictA algorithm had a discriminative power (C-statistics = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.61; 0.64), but poor calibration (p < 0.001) with the NESARC data. The observed and the mean predicted risk of GAD and/or panic disorders in the NESARC were 5.3% and 3.6%, respectively. Particularly, the observed and predicted risks of GAD and/or panic disorders in the highest decile of risk score in the NESARC participants were 13.3% and 10.4%, respectively.

Conclusion

The PredictA algorithm has acceptable discrimination, but the calibration with the NESARC data was poor. The PredictA algorithm is likely to underestimate the risk of GAD/panic disorders in the US population. Therefore, the use of PredictA in the US general population for predicting individual risk of GAD and/or panic disorders is not encouraged.



Enhanced cognitive control over task-irrelevant emotional distractors in generalized anxiety disorder versus obsessive-compulsive disorder

Publication date: May 2019

Source: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Volume 64

Author(s): Lauren S. Hallion, David F. Tolin, Gretchen J. Diefenbach

Abstract

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is defined in part by excessive and uncontrollable worry. However, little is known about cognitive control abilities in adults with GAD. The present study examined cognitive control over negative and neutral material in a mixed clinical sample of adults with GAD and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder and a comparison healthy control sample. Participants completed a novel emotional variant of the AX-CPT (eAX-CPT) to index proactive and reactive cognitive control in the presence of negative and neutral distractor stimuli. Participants with GAD demonstrated enhanced cognitive control specifically over negative emotional distractors, relative to neutral distractors (within-subjects) and relative to OCD and controls (between-subjects). Findings were specific to GAD versus trait worry; however, higher trait worry predicted better cognitive control in GAD only. These findings are inconsistent with deficit-based cognitive models of GAD and may be better accounted for by models that conceptualize worry as an intentional (albeit maladaptive) cognitive control or emotion regulation strategy that is actively maintained by individuals with GAD in order to avoid engaging with more distressing emotional information.



Safety behaviors, experiential avoidance, and anxiety: A path analysis approach

Publication date: May 2019

Source: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Volume 64

Author(s): Alex Kirk, Johanna M. Meyer, Mark A. Whisman, Brett J. Deacon, Joanna J. Arch

Abstract

Avoidance has long been viewed as an etiological mechanism of anxiety disorders. Of more recent focus within this literature is the distinction between avoidance that is trait-based (experiential avoidance) versus contextual (safety behaviors). Whereas both experiential avoidance and safety behaviors have been studied within anxiety research, no known studies have evaluated the direct and indirect relationships of these forms of avoidance in predicting critical outcomes, particularly in conjunction with symptom severity. To address this gap, the current study assessed social anxiety and panic symptoms, experiential avoidance, use of preventive and restorative safety behaviors, and quality of life to determine the direct and indirect contributions of trait-based and contextual avoidance in predicting clinically relevant outcomes via path analysis. U.S. adults with elevated social anxiety or panic symptoms (n = 254) were recruited online. Results from path analysis showed that, across groups, the relationship between symptoms and quality of life was indirectly accounted for by use of preventive safety behaviors. Further, for participants with panic symptoms (but not for those with social anxiety symptoms), experiential avoidance predicted quality of life even after accounting for use of preventive safety behaviors. The results of this study indicate that trait-based and contextual avoidance contribute significantly to clinically relevant outcomes.



Fear extinction learning as a predictor of response to cognitive behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder

Publication date: May 2019

Source: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Volume 64

Author(s): Daniel A. Geller, Joseph F. McGuire, Scott P. Orr, Brent J. Small, Tanya K. Murphy, Kathleen Trainor, Rachel Porth, Sabine Wilhelm, Eric A. Storch

Abstract
Background

While cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for many children and adolescents with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), therapeutic response is variable. Fear conditioning and extinction are central constructs underlying exposure-based CBT. Fear extinction learning assessed prior to CBT may be a useful predictor of CBT response for guiding treatment decisions.

Methods

Sixty-four youth who participated in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of CBT with and without d-cycloserine (DCS) completed a fear conditioning task. Skin conductance response (SCR) scores were used to measure fear acquisition and extinction to determine whether extinction learning could predict CBT response.

Results

CBT responders and non-responders appeared to acquire conditioned fear SCRs in a similar manner. However, differences between treatment responders and non-responders emerged during the extinction phase. A responder (responder, non-responder) by conditioned stimulus type (CS+, CS−) interaction showed that CBT responders differentiated the stimulus paired with (CS+) and without (CS−) the unconditioned stimulus correctly during early and late extinction, whereas the CBT non-responders did not (p = .004).

Conclusions

While the small sample size makes conclusions tentative, this study supports an emerging literature that differential fear extinction may be an important factor underlying clinical correlates of pediatric OCD, including CBT response.



An integrative review of the vigilance-avoidance model in pediatric anxiety disorders: Are we looking in the wrong place?

Publication date: May 2019

Source: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Volume 64

Author(s): Dana Rosen, Rebecca B. Price, Jennifer S. Silk

Abstract

Enduring cognitive models of anxiety posit that negative biases in information processing are implicated in the etiology, maintenance, and recurrence of anxiety disorders in youth and adults. Specifically, the vigilance-avoidance model of attention is an influential hypothesis proposed to explain anxious individuals' attentional patterns. The vigilance-avoidance model posits that anxious individuals, relative to nonanxious individuals, initially orient more quickly to threatening stimuli and then later avoid threatening stimuli. However, a large body of empirical research examining attentional mechanisms in anxious individuals uses paradigms that do not allow the measurement of the time course of attention. Furthermore, existing reviews that examine the time course of attention only include studies with adults. We systematically review in depth the literature that compares anxious and non-anxious children that takes advantage of research designs that allow the examination of the time course of attention. Across studies, there is not robust support for the vigilance-avoidance model in samples of anxious youth. Future research examining attention biases across time should employ tasks that more directly measure multiple stages of attention, in order to assess if vigilance-avoidance patterns emerge based on sample characteristics or task variables, and to inform intervention efforts.



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