Παρασκευή, 12 Απριλίου 2019

Targeted Oncology

Crizotinib in Chinese Patients with ROS1 -Rearranged Advanced Non‒Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Routine Clinical Practice

Abstract

Background

Approximately 1–2% of patients with non‒small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harbor ROS1 rearrangements. Crizotinib, an oral small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that targets anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), MET, and ROS1, has shown marked antitumor activity in patients with ROS1-positive advanced NSCLC.

Objective

Our objective was to analyze the efficacy and safety of crizotinib treatment in Chinese patients with advanced NSCLC with ROS1 rearrangement in real-world clinical practice.

Methods

We included 35 patients with ROS1-positive NSCLC in this retrospective analysis. All received crizotinib 250 mg twice daily between March 2016 and April 2018 at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. All had histologically or cytologically confirmed locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC with ROS1 rearrangements, which were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, or next-generation sequencing. The main outcome measures were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and adverse events.

Results

The median age of the patients was 51.0 years; 23 (65.7%) were female and 28 (80.0%) were never smokers. All were diagnosed as having adenocarcinoma; eight patients (22.9%) had brain metastases at baseline. The ORR and DCR were 71.4% and 94.3%, respectively. The estimated median PFS was 11.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.8–14.2). The estimated median OS was 41.0 months (95% CI 22.5–59.5). Elevated transaminases (54.3%), vision disorder (25.7%), elevated blood creatinine (22.9%), diarrhea (20.0%), and vomiting (20.0%) were the most commonly reported adverse effects.

Conclusion

Crizotinib was effective and well tolerated in Chinese patients with ROS1-positive advanced NSCLC in real-world clinical practice. The progression sites and patterns, as well as treatments after first disease progression on crizotinib were diverse. Crizotinib beyond progressive disease and local therapy after failure of crizotinib treatment were feasible and effective in clinical practice.



Distribution of ALK Fusion Variants and Correlation with Clinical Outcomes in Chinese Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Crizotinib

Abstract

Background

ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents a molecular subgroup with high sensitivity to ALK inhibitors. Crizotinib, a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor for treating ALK-rearranged NSCLC, has shown remarkable response in ALK-positive NSCLC. However, heterogeneity of clinical responses exists among different ALK fusion partners. Several small studies have investigated the correlation between fusion partners and efficacy, but not yielded consistent results.

Objective

We investigated the prevalence of ALK rearrangements in a Chinese NSCLC population, and correlated clinical outcomes of crizotinib with different ALK partners/variants.

Patients and methods

We retrospectively reviewed genomic profiling and clinical data of 110 ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients from five centers. The clinical response to crizotinib and survival data in ALK-positive patients was retrospectively analyzed.

Results

A total of 134 ALK rearrangements with 39 partners were identified in 110 patients (5.6%) among a cohort of 1971 NSCLC patients. The most frequently occurring ALK fusion partner was EML4, which was identified in 71.6% (96/134) of all of the rearrangements in 87.3% (96/110) patients, and with variant 3 (41/96, 42.7%) as the main variant type. No statistically significant differences in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were found between EML4-ALK and non-EML4-ALK NSCLC patients in our cohort (PFS, p = 0.207; OS, p = 0.678). Outcomes did not differ significantly between patients above and below 40 years of age (PFS, p = 0.427; OS, p = 0.686), nor between patients treated with crizotinib in different lines of therapy (PFS, p = 0.171; OS, p = 0.922). For EML4-ALK-positive NSCLC (n = 96), patients harboring variant 3 or variant 5 displayed significantly lower PFS and OS than those with other variants (PFS, 8.6 vs. 11.3 months, p = 0.046; OS, 31.0 vs. 37.6 months, p = 0.026). In addition, patients with a single EML4-ALK rearrangement event displayed favorable PFS (10.0 vs. 7.2 months, p = 0.040) and OS (36.0 vs. 20.0 months, p = 0.029) compared to those harboring multiple ALK rearrangements.

Conclusions

This study illustrates the patterns of ALK fusion variants present in Chinese NSCLC patients and might help explain heterogeneous clinical outcomes to crizotinib treatment according to different ALK fusion variants.



Prognostic Markers for Refined Stratification of IMDC Intermediate-Risk Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated with First-Line Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy

Abstract

Background

Patients in the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) intermediate-risk group have heterogeneous prognoses and thus may benefit from improved risk stratification.

Objective

The aim of this study was to analyze inflammatory parameters such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as prognostic markers for IMDC intermediate-risk patients.

Methods

Patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n = 71) with IMDC intermediate risk who received tyrosine kinase inhibitors as first-line therapy were included in this retrospective study. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors for overall survival (OS).

Results

As first-line systemic therapy, 46 (65%), 19 (27%), and 6 (8%) patients received sunitinib, sorafenib, and pazopanib, respectively. An IMDC prognostic score of 1 and 2 were observed in 34 (48%) and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Mean CRP level was 1.06 mg/dL, and mean NLR was 3.0. Multivariate Cox regression revealed several factors significantly associated with poor OS, including NLR ≥ 3 (vs NLR < 3; hazard ratio [HR] 2.57; p = 0.0228), CRP level ≥ 1 mg/dL (vs CRP < 1 mg/dL; HR 2.89; p = 0.0279), and two or more metastatic organs (vs one organ; HR 3.77; p = 0.0008). Using these risk factors, patients were stratified into the following three risk categories: F0 (no prognostic factors; n = 20), in which the median OS (mOS) was not achieved; F1 (1 prognostic factor; n = 31), in which the mOS was 31 months; and F2–3 (2 or 3 prognostic factors; n = 20) in which the mOS was 13 months (log-rank p < 0.0001).

Conclusion

CRP, NLR, and the number of metastatic organs were independent prognostic factors in IMDC intermediate-risk patients.



Toxicities with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: Emerging Priorities From Disproportionality Analysis of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System

Abstract

Background

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), including antibodies targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death 1 or its ligand (PD1/PDL1), elicit different immune-related adverse events (irAEs), but their global safety is incompletely characterized.

Objective

The aim of this study was to characterize the spectrum, frequency, and clinical features of ICI-related adverse events (AEs) reported to the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS).

Patients and methods

AEs from FAERS (up to June 2018) recording ICIs (ipilimumab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, avelumab, durvalumab) as suspect were extracted. Comprehensive disproportionality analyses were performed through the reporting odds ratio (ROR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI), using other oncological drugs as comparison. An overview of systematic reviews (OoSRs) was also undertaken to identify irAEs with consistent positive associations.

Results

ICIs were recorded in 47,266 reports, submitted mainly by consumers receiving monotherapy with anti-PD1/PDL1 drugs. Three areas of toxicity emerged from both disproportionality analysis and the OoSRs (32 studies): endocrine (N = 2863; ROR = 6.91; 95% CI 6.60–7.23), hepatobiliary (2632; 1.33; 1.28–1.39), and respiratory disorders (7240; 1.04; 1.01–1.06). Different reporting patterns emerged for anti-CTLA4 drugs (e.g., hypophysitis, adrenal insufficiency, hypopituitarism, and prescribed overdose) and anti-PD1/PDL1 agents (e.g., pneumonitis, cholangitis, vanishing bile duct syndrome, tumor pseudoprogression, and inappropriate schedule of drug administration). No increased reporting emerged when comparing combination with monotherapy regimens, but multiple hepatobiliary/endocrine/respiratory irAEs were recorded.

Conclusions

This parallel approach through contemporary post-marketing analysis and OoSRs confirmed that ICIs are associated with a multitude of irAEs, with different reporting patterns between anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1/PDL1 medications. Close clinical monitoring is warranted to early diagnose and timely manage irAEs, especially respiratory, endocrine, and hepatic toxicities, which warrant further characterization; patient- and drug-related risk factors should be assessed through analytical pharmaco-epidemiological studies and prospective multicenter registries.



Serum Alpha1-Globulin as a Novel Prognostic Factor in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

Abstract

Background

Serum protein fraction (SPF) is a common parameter reflecting the nutritional and inflammatory status of the human body. However, its role in patients with cancer, particularly those treated with targeted agents, is unknown.

Objective

We conducted this study to explore the prognostic value of SPF in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors and its association with clinical characteristics.

Methods

Patients with mRCC (n = 213) who initiated first-line sunitinib or sorafenib systemic therapy for metastatic disease between March 2007 and June 2017 at Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, were retrospectively included in our analysis. Clinical and pathological data were collected. SPF was measured by capillary electrophoresis. Prognostic factors of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Correlation was estimated with Spearman's correlation coefficient.

Results

Among all SPF components, high α1-globulin was an independent prognostic factor for OS and PFS (dichotomized by median, hazard ratio [HR] 2.356; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.399–3.966, p = 0.001; and HR 1.994; 95% CI 1.360–2.923, p < 0.001, respectively). In our cohort, α1-globulin showed better predictive value for OS than the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) model (C-index 0.682 vs. 0.597; p = 0.005). Moreover, serum α1-globulin was positively correlated with International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grade (r = 0.237; p < 0.001), tumor size (r = 0.242; p < 0.001), initial tumor/node/metastasis (TNM) stage (r = 0.185; p = 0.007), and IMDC risk group (r = 0.485; p < 0.001).

Conclusions

High serum α1-globulin correlates with high tumor load. Serum α1-globulin is an independent prognostic factor of OS and PFS in mRCC and demonstrates better predictive value for OS than does the IMDC model.



EGFR Mutations in Cell-free Plasma DNA from Patients with Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma: Improved Detection by Droplet Digital PCR

Abstract

Background

Analysis of cell-free DNA from blood could provide an alternative method for identifying genomic changes in the tumors of patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma.

Objective

We compared the performance of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) and Cobas® EGFR Mutation Test v2 (Cobas) for detecting EGFR mutations in cell-free plasma DNA.

Patients and Methods

Plasma samples from patients with advanced EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma were analyzed for EGFR T790M, exon 19 deletions, and L858R mutations by both ddPCR and Cobas.

Results

T790M testing was performed in 354 plasma samples collected from 129 patients. The concordance rate between ddPCR and Cobas for T790M, sensitivity, and specificity were 86, 100, and 85%, respectively. Exon 19 deletions were analyzed in 196 plasma samples obtained from 71 of the 129 patients using both platforms. The concordance rate between ddPCR and Cobas for exon 19 deletions, sensitivity, and specificity were 90, 92, and 89%, respectively. L858R mutations were studied in 124 plasma samples obtained from 44 of the 129 patients using both assays. The concordance rate between ddPCR and Cobas for L858R, sensitivity, and specificity were 90, 91, and 89%, respectively. In patients who progressed under treatment with an EGFR TKI (n = 50), the T790M positivity rate was 66% using ddPCR, but only 24% using Cobas.

Conclusions

We observed a high concordance between ddPCR and Cobas in detecting EGFR mutations in plasma samples of patients with advanced EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma, but ddPCR was more sensitive than Cobas.



Clinical Management of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with Concomitant EGFR Mutations and ALK Rearrangements: Efficacy of EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Crizotinib

Abstract

Background

Patients harboring concomitant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) arrangements constitute a small subgroup of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and the ALK-specific TKI crizotinib in these patients has not been well-established.

Objective

This study investigated the efficacy of targeted therapies in these patients compared with patients with EGFR or ALK alterations alone.

Methods

Patients were screened for EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement at the Shanghai Chest Hospital (2011–2017). Progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and overall survival (OS) were retrospectively analyzed.

Results

A total of 5816 patients were screened, and 26 patients were identified as having concomitant EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangements; 22 patients were eligible for survival analysis. Additionally, 95 EGFR-mutant patients and 60 ALK-rearranged patients were randomly selected for analysis. The ORR to EGFR TKIs was 63.2% (12/19) for EGFR/ALK co-altered patients and 62.1% (59/95) for EGFR-mutant patients (p = 0.93) with a median PFS of 10.3 and 11.4 months, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59–1.57; p = 0.87). The ORR to crizotinib was 66.7% (8/12) for double-positive patients and 65.0% (39/60) for ALK-rearranged patients (p = 1.00), with a median PFS of 11.1 and 12.5 months, respectively (HR 1.39; 95% CI 0.69–2.80; p = 0.28). OS was 27.1, 36.2, and 36.8 months for EGFR-mutant, ALK-rearranged, and EGFR/ALK co-altered patients, respectively, and the EGFR/ALK co-existing subgroup tended to have a longer survival period than EGFR-mutant cohorts, though no statistical difference was found (p = 0.12). The median PFS of crizotinib as a sequential therapy after failure of EGFR TKIs was 15.0 months, which exhibited no statistically significant difference compared with the median PFS of ALK-altered patients who received crizotinib (p = 0.80).

Conclusions

Both first-generation EGFR TKIs and the ALK TKI crizotinib were effective in these patients. Sequential treatment with EGFR TKIs and crizotinib should be considered as a management option.



Pralatrexate in Chinese Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma: A Single-arm, Multicenter Study

Abstract

Background

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is associated with poor prognosis, particularly in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) disease. Pralatrexate, a folate analogue inhibitor, was the first drug approved to treat R/R PTCL.

Objective

As the distribution of PTCL subtypes differs between populations and few patients in the pivotal trial of pralatrexate were Asian, this study investigated the safety and efficacy of pralatrexate as monotherapy in Chinese patients with R/R PTCL.

Patients and Methods

In this single-arm, open-label, multicenter study, 71 patients with R/R PTCL (median [range] 2 [1–14] prior systemic treatments) were recruited from 15 centers in China and received pralatrexate IV 30 mg/m2/week for 6 weeks in 7-week cycles (with vitamin B12/folate). The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) per central review (null hypothesis: ORR < 15%).

Results

The study's primary objective was met: ORR (95% CI) was 52% (40–64%) (p < 0.001) and responses were observed across pre-specified patient subgroups. Median (95% CI) duration of response was 8.7 (3.3–14.1) months and first response was observed in Cycle 1 for most (84%) patients. Median (95% CI) progression-free survival and overall survival was 4.8 (3.1–8.1) months and 18.0 (10.4–NA) months, respectively. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were stomatitis (68% [Grade 3/4: 20%]), anemia (49% [Grade 3/4: 24%]) and alanine aminotransferase increase (41% [Grade 3/4: 4%]).

Conclusions

These results demonstrate that pralatrexate may represent a promising treatment option for Chinese patients with R/R PTCL. The ORR of 52% compared favorably with prior studies of pralatrexate in other populations and there were no unanticipated side effects.

Trial Registration

ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03349333.



Inhibiting Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase in CLL and Other B-Cell Malignancies

Abstract

Inhibitors of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a major kinase in the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway, mediating B-cell proliferation and apoptosis, have substantially altered the management, clinical course, and outcome of patients with B-cell malignancies. This is especially true for patients with previously limited treatment options due to disease characteristics or coexisting diseases. Ibrutinib was the first orally available, nonselective and irreversible inhibitor of BTK approved for the treatment of patients with various B-cell malignancies. Newer and more selective BTK inhibitors are currently in clinical development, including acalabrutinib, which is currently US FDA approved for previously treated mantle cell lymphoma. Significant efforts are underway to investigate the optimal combinations, timing, and sequencing of BTK inhibitors with other regimens and targeted agents, and to capitalize on the immunomodulatory modes of action of BTK inhibitors to correct tumor-induced immune defects and to achieve long-lasting tumor control. This review describes the major milestones in the clinical development of BTK inhibitors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell malignancies, highlights the most recent long-term follow-up results, and evaluates the role of BTK inhibitors and their combination with other agents in B-cell malignancies and other indications.



Synergistic Growth Inhibition by Afatinib and Trametinib in Preclinical Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Models

Abstract

Background

Given that aberrant activation of epidermal growth factor receptor family receptors (ErbB) is a common event in oral squamous cell carcinoma, and that high expression of these receptor proteins is often associated with poor prognosis, this rationalizes the approach of targeting ErbB signaling pathways to improve the survival of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. However, monotherapy with the ErbB blocker afatinib has shown limited survival benefits.

Objectives

This study was performed to identify mechanisms of afatinib resistance and to explore potential afatinib-based combination treatments with other targeted inhibitors in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Methods

We determined the anti-proliferative effects of afatinib on a panel of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines using a crystal violet-growth inhibition assay, click-iT 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine staining, and cell-cycle analysis. Biochemical assays were performed to study the underlying mechanism of drug treatment as a single agent or in combination with the MEK inhibitor trametinib. We further evaluated and compared the anti-tumor effects of single agent and combined treatment by using oral squamous cell carcinoma xenograft models.

Results

In this study, we showed that afatinib inhibited oral squamous cell carcinoma cell proliferation via cell-cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, and inhibited tumor growth in xenograft mouse models. Interestingly, we demonstrated reactivation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2) pathway in vitro, which possibly reduced the effects of ErbB inhibition. Concomitant treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells with afatinib and trametinib synergized the anti-tumor effects in oral squamous cell carcinoma-bearing mouse models.

Conclusions

Our findings provide insight into the molecular mechanism of resistance to afatinib and support further clinical evaluation into the combination of afatinib and MEK inhibition in the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma.



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