Τρίτη, 16 Απριλίου 2019

Preventive Medicine

Masthead

Publication date: April 2019

Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 4

Author(s):



Kenneth W. Kizer, MD, MPH. Advancing Tobacco Control Among Medicaid Beneficiaries: A Historical Perspective and Call to Action. Am J Prev Med. 2018;55(6S2):S222–S226.

Publication date: April 2019

Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 4

Author(s):



Acknowledgments for AJPM Volumes 54 and 55

Publication date: April 2019

Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 4

Author(s):



The Association Between E-cigarette Use and Myocardial Infarction Is What One Would Expect Based on the Biological and Clinical Evidence

Publication date: April 2019

Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 4

Author(s): Talal Alzahrani, Stanton A. Glantz



E-cigarette Use and Myocardial Infarction: Association Versus Causal Inference

Publication date: April 2019

Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 4

Author(s): Konstantinos Farsalinos, Raymond Niaura



Harnessing the Power of Food Labels for Public Health

Publication date: April 2019

Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 4

Author(s): Jennifer L. Pomeranz, Peter G. Lurie



The Emerging Identity of the Preventive Medicine Specialty: A Model for the Population Health Transition

Publication date: April 2019

Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 4

Author(s): Yuri T. Jadotte, Heather B. Leisy, Kimberly Noel, Dorothy S. Lane



Urban–Rural Differences in Older Adult Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Comparative Studies

Publication date: April 2019

Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 4

Author(s): Jonathan Purtle, Katherine L. Nelson, Yong Yang, Brent Langellier, Ivana Stankov, Ana V. Diez Roux

Context

Depression among older adults (aged 60 years or older) is a problem that could be exacerbated by global trends in urbanization and population aging. The study purpose was to assess whether urban, relative to rural, residence is associated with depression among older adults and whether associations differ in countries with developed versus developing economies.

Evidence acquisition

In 2017, the authors identified and extracted information from comparative studies of urban–rural depression prevalence among older adults. Studies were identified in PubMed, PsychINFO, and Web of Science and limited to English language articles published after 1985. Eighteen studies met inclusion criteria. Random effects meta-analysis was conducted to produce weighted pooled ORs estimating the association between urban–rural residence and depression for all study participants (N=31,598) and sub-analyses were conducted for developed (n=12,728) and developing (n=18,870) countries.

Evidence synthesis

Depression prevalence was significantly higher among urban residents in ten studies and significantly higher among rural residents in three studies (all three conducted in China). Associations between urban–rural residence and depression generally remained significant after adjusting for covariates. In developed countries, the odds of depression were significantly higher among urban than rural residents (pooled OR=1.44, 95% CI=1.10, 1.88). However, in developing countries, this association was not observed (pooled OR=0.91, 95% CI=0.46, 1.77).

Conclusions

Converging trends of urbanization and population aging could increase the global burden of depression among older adults. The pathways through which urban–rural residence influences depression risk among older adults might differ by country context. Future research should focus on measuring variation in these contexts.



Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Interventions in the U.S.: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Publication date: April 2019

Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 4

Author(s): Ana M. Rodriguez, Thuy Quynh N. Do, Michael Goodman, Kathleen M. Schmeler, Sapna Kaul, Yong-Fang Kuo

Context

Despite current recommendations, human papillomavirus vaccine uptake remains low. A systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effectiveness of interventions targeting human papillomavirus vaccine initiation and completion among children, adolescents, and young adults aged 9–26 years.

Evidence acquisition

Three electronic databases (CINAHL, OVID, and Web of Science) were searched for articles published in English peer-reviewed journals between January 2006 and January 2017 of U.S. studies that evaluated intervention strategies and reported post-intervention human papillomavirus vaccine initiation or completion rates among individuals aged 9–26 years. Study characteristics and outcomes were extracted. Data were collected in 2016 and analyzed in 2017.

Evidence synthesis

Reviewers screened 983 unique titles and abstracts, read 241 full-text articles, and extracted data from 30 articles meeting the inclusion criteria (12 behavioral, ten environmental, four informational, and four combination strategies). Published EQUATOR (Enhancing the Quality and Transparency of Health Research) guidelines were used to assess study quality. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted. The meta-analyses included 17 RCTs and quasi-experiments involving 68,623 children, adolescents, and young adults. The pooled relative incidence estimates were 1.84 (95% CI=1.36, 2.48) for human papillomavirus vaccine initiation and 1.50 (95% CI=1.23, 1.83) for completion. Behavioral and informational interventions doubled human papillomavirus vaccine initiation (relative incidence estimate=2.04, 95% CI=1.36, 3.06 and relative incidence estimate=1.92, 95% CI=1.27, 2.91, respectively). Behavioral interventions increased completion by 68% (relative incidence estimate=1.68, 95% CI=1.25, 2.27).

Conclusions

Evidence supports behavioral interventions for increasing human papillomavirus vaccine initiation and completion. Future studies are needed to assess the effectiveness of interventions in reaching diverse populations and reducing missed opportunities for human papillomavirus vaccination.



The Relationship Between Hearing Loss and Substance Use Disorders Among Adults in the U.S.

Publication date: April 2019

Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 56, Issue 4

Author(s): Michael M. McKee, Michelle A. Meade, Philip Zazove, Haylie J. Stewart, Mary L. Jannausch, Mark A. Ilgen

Introduction

Hearing loss is common and associated with poorer health and impeded communication. Little is known about the association between hearing loss and substance use disorders in the general population. The objective of this study was to assess substance use disorder prevalence among individuals with hearing loss, versus those without hearing loss, in a nationally representative sample of adults.

Methods

Two years (2015 and 2016) of National Survey on Drug Use and Health (unweighted N=86,186) were combined to compare substance use disorders among adults with and without self-reported hearing loss. Statistical analysis included descriptive frequencies, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regressions. Analyses were performed in 2018.

Results

Hearing loss prevalence across all age groups was 5.2%. Among younger age groups, after adjusting for sociodemographics, hearing loss was independently associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing a substance use disorder (ages 18–34 years, AOR=1.34, 95% CI=1.10, 1.64 vs 35–49 years, AOR=1.87, 95% CI=1.39, 2.53). Hearing loss was also associated with a greater likelihood of a prescription opioid use disorder (AOR=2.85, 95% CI=1.86, 4.39) in the group aged 18–34 years and, for the group aged 35–49 years, hearing loss increased the likelihood of both an alcohol use disorder (AOR=1.87, 95% CI=1.39, 2.53) and a prescription opioid use disorder (AOR=1.99, 95% CI=1.01, 3.91).

Conclusions

Hearing loss is independently associated with substance use disorders among those aged 49 years and younger; these associations are particularly pronounced for prescription opioid use disorders in the group aged 18–34 years. Given the concern of inappropriate use of prescription opioids, this information may have implications for healthcare providers' pain management for patients with hearing loss.



Δεν υπάρχουν σχόλια:

Δημοσίευση σχολίου

Δημοφιλείς αναρτήσεις