Τετάρτη, 13 Μαρτίου 2019

Neurology and Neurosurgery

Neurosurgical contribution within a complex NF1 supraregional service

Publication date: May 2019

Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, Volume 180

Author(s): H. Raffalli-Ebezant, K.J. George, E. Burkitt-Wright, F. Roncaroli, G. Evans, C. Soh, J. Ealing, G. Vassallo, J.E. Elloo, K. Karabatsou

Abstract
Objectives

The goal of this study was to review and present neurosurgical related activity within a multidisciplinary nationally commissioned specialty neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) center.

Patients & methods

We reviewed all NF1 Neurosurgical MDTs, NF1 Neurosurgical clinics and all neurosurgical procedures carried out in NF1 patients over an 8-year period.

Results

Since the inception of the service in 2009, 1505 cases were discussed at our NF-1 multidisciplinary meeting, 171 clinic appointments in complex NF1 patients with neurosurgical pathologies and 43(cranial and spinal) operations were performed.

Conclusions

The formation of a supraregional multidisciplinary team allows for a better understanding of the disease, a comprehensive evaluation of neuroimaging findings and a steep learning curve in the management of NF1 surgical conditions.

We provide holistic treatment for these patients via direct care, specialist advice and liaison with local units.



Intensive blood pressure control reduces the risk of progressive hemorrhage in patients with acute hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage: A retrospective observational study

Publication date: May 2019

Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, Volume 180

Author(s): Jian-Lan Zhao, Zhuo-Ying Du, Yi-Rui Sun, Qiang Yuan, Jian Yu, Xing Wu, Zhi-Qi Li, Xue-Hai Wu, Rong Xie, Jin Hu

Abstract
Objective

To investigate the impact of intensive blood pressure control on progressive intracerebral hemorrhage and outcome in patients with high blood pressure and intracerebral hemorrhage.

Patients and methods

A retrospective study was conducted recruiting 659 patients with acute hemorrhagic stroke between Jan. 2012 and May 2018. Patients recruited before May 2015 were treated with a target systolic level of <180 mm Hg, while those recruited after May 2015 received intensive blood pressure control treatment with a target systolic level of <140 mm Hg within 1 h. Uni- and multi-variate analysis were conducted to illustrate the association between intensive blood pressure control and progressive intracerebral hemorrhage. Mortality, rates of operation, length of ICU stay, modified Rankin scores at 90 days, and the rate of serious adverse events were also compared between the two groups.

Results

A total of 351 and 308 patients with acute hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage were recruited before and after May 2015, respectively. Progressive intracerebral hemorrhage was identified among 111 out of 659 patients. Patients who received intensive blood pressure control showed a statistically lower rate of hematoma enlarging (43 of 308, 13.9% vs. 74 of 351, 21.1%, p = 0.018). The rates of operation and modified Rankin scores at 90 days were statistically lower with intensive blood control, while the mortality, length of ICU stay and rate of serious adverse events were similar between the two groups. Intensive BP control is an independent factor in predicting hematoma growing, with a more favorable discrimination (AUC = 0.889; 95%CI, 0.859–0.917) than other two models (AUC = 0.821; 95%CI, 0.791–0.852; and AUC = 0.635; 95%CI, 0.588–0.682).

Conclusion

Intensive blood pressure control reduce the risk of progressive intracerebral hemorrhage and improved functional outcomes in patients with acute hemorrhagic stroke.



The role of navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation for surgery of motor-eloquent brain tumors: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Publication date: May 2019

Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, Volume 180

Author(s): Giovanni Raffa, Antonino Scibilia, Alfredo Conti, Giuseppe Ricciardo, Vincenzo Rizzo, Adolfo Morelli, Filippo Flavio Angileri, Salvatore Massimiliano Cardali, Antonino Germanò

Abstract

Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is an emerging tool for surgery of motor-eloquent intrinsic brain tumors, but a critical reappraisal of the literature evidence has never been performed, so far. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed searching on PubMed/MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for studies that analyzed the impact of nTMS-based motor mapping on surgery of patients affected by motor-eloquent intrinsic brain tumors, in comparison with series of patients operated without using nTMS. The impact of nTMS mapping was assessed analyzing the occurrence of postoperative new permanent motor deficits, the gross total resection rate (GTR), the size of craniotomy and the length of surgery. Only eight studies were considered eligible and were included in the quantitative review and meta-analysis. The pooled analysis showed that nTMS motor mapping significantly reduced the risk of postoperative new permanent motor deficits (OR = 0.54, p = 0.001, data available from eight studies) and increased the GTR rate (OR = 2.32, p < 0.001, data from seven studies). Moreover, data from four studies documented the craniotomy size was reduced in the nTMS group (-6.24 cm2, p < 0.001), whereas a trend towards a reduction, even if non significant, was observed for the length of surgery (-10.30 min, p = 0.38) in three studies. Collectively, currently available literature provides data in favor of the use of nTMS motor mapping: its use seems to be associated with a reduced occurrence of postoperative permanent motor deficits, an increased GTR rate, and a tailored surgical approach compared to standard surgery without using preoperative nTMS mapping. Nonetheless, a growing need of high-level evidence about the use of nTMS motor mapping in brain tumor surgery is perceived. Well-designed randomized controlled studies from multiple Institutions are clearly advocated to continue to shed a light on this emerging topic.



Methyl-DOPA causing reversible peripheral facial palsy

Publication date: April 2019

Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, Volume 179

Author(s): Josef Finsterer



Bias in determining factors associated with early seizures after surgery of unruptured intracranial aneurysms

Publication date: April 2019

Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, Volume 179

Author(s): Mohammad Hossein Panahi, Razieh Bidhendi Yarandi



A rare cause of axial worsening in Parkinson's disease: A case of myasthenic pseudo-parkinsonism

Publication date: April 2019

Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, Volume 179

Author(s): Massimo Marano, Jacopo Lanzone, Lazzaro di Biase, Alessio Pepe, Alessandro Di Santo, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro



Retrospective analysis of accuracy and positive predictive value of preoperative lumbar MRI grading after successful outcome following outpatient endoscopic decompression for lumbar foraminal and lateral recess stenosis

Publication date: April 2019

Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, Volume 179

Author(s): Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski

Abstract
Objectives

The aim of this study was to analyze the accuracy and positive predictive value (PPV) of preoperative lumbar MRI grading for successful outcome after outpatient endoscopic decompression for lumbar foraminal and lateral recess stenosis. Lumbar MRI is commonly employed in preoperative decision making to identify symptomatic pain generators amenable to surgical decompression. However, its accuracy and positive predictive value for successful postoperative pain relief after endoscopic transforaminal decompression for sciatica-type back and leg pain has not been reported.

Patients and methods

A retrospective study of 1839 consecutive patients with a mean follow-up of 33 months that underwent lumbar endoscopic transforaminal decompression at 2076 lumbar levels was conducted. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive value of preoperative MRI grading correctly identifying the symptomatic surgical level were calculated based on the recorded intraoperatively visualized pathology and clinical outcomes assessed by both Macnab criteria and VAS score reduction.

Results

Of the 1839 patients evaluated, 1750 had intraoperatively visualized stenosis in the lateral recess at the surgical level whereas 89 patients did not. Analysis of radiologist grading of exiting nerve root compression in the lumbar MRI reports in patients with visualized compressive pathology: true positive (1196), false negative (554); as compared with patients without visualized compressive pathology showed: false positive (30), and true negative (59); and allowed for calculation of sensitivity (68.34%), specificity (68.29%), accuracy (68.24%) and the positive predictive value (97.38%) in relation to successful clinical outcome of the subsequent endoscopic decompression surgery. Sensitivity (87.2%), specificity (73.03%), and accuracy (86.51%) improved when the treating surgeon graded same MRI scan for traversing nerve root compression. Taking different spinal stenosis classification systems by the radiologist and surgeon into consideration, Kappa statistic assessment of agreement between radiology and surgeon reporting of stenosis showed different degrees of concordance for extruded herniated disc (κ = 0.42; 331 patients), contained disc herniation (κ = -0.01; 648 patients), and stenosis (κ = 0.25; 860 patients). Disagreement (κ = 0.216; 440 patients) predominantly existed in grading the relevance of foraminal stenosis in the entry- (κ = 0.18; 278/440 patients), mid- (κ = -0.036; 121/440 patients), and less so in the exit zone (κ = -0.036; 41/440 patients) associated with contained (κ = -0.10; 178/440 patients), extruded disc herniations (κ = 0.4; 62/440 patients), and stenosis (κ = 0.25; 200/440 patients).

Conclusion

The grading of a preoperative MRI scan for lumbar foraminal and lateral recess stenosis may significantly differ between radiologist and surgeon. The endoscopic spine surgeon should read and grade the lumbar MRI scan independently to aid in appropriate patient selection for successful transforaminal endoscopic decompression surgery. More contemporary MRI reporting criteria are needed to describe the surgical anatomy in the neuroforamen and lateral recess relevant during the minimally invasive endoscopic transforaminal decompression.



Long-term outcomes of deep brain stimulation in severe Parkinson's disease utilizing UPDRS III and modified Hoehn and Yahr as a severity scale

Publication date: April 2019

Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, Volume 179

Author(s): Lora Kahn, Mansour Mathkour, Shu Xian Lee, Edna E. Gouveia, Joshua A. Hanna, Juanita Garces, Tyler Scullen, Erin McCormack, Jonathan Riffle, Ryan Glynn, David Houghton, Georgia Lea, Erin E. Biro, Cuong J. Bui, Olawale A. Sulaiman, Roger D. Smith

Abstract
Objectives

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the surgical treatment of choice for moderate to severe Parkinson's Disease (PD). However, few studies have assessed its efficacy in severe PD as defined by the modified Hoehn and Yahr scale (HY). This study evaluates long-term and medication outcomes of DBS in severe PD.

Patients and methods

We retrospectively collected the data of 15 patients from 2008 to 2014 with severe PD treated with DBS. Retrospective assessment with the modified Hoehn and Yahr scale and motor subset of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS III) were used to objectively track severity and motor function improvement, respectively. Levodopa equivalence daily doses (LEDD), number of anti-PD medications and number of daily medication doses were used to measure improvements in medication burden. Data was evaluated using univariate analyses, one sample paired t-test, two sample paired t-test, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

Results

The mean post-operative follow-up was 44.63 months, average age at diagnosis and the average age at time of DBS was 51.3 years and 61.5 years, respectively, and the time from diagnosis to treatment was 13.2 years. Significant decreases were seen in UPDRS III scores (pre-op = 44.533; post-op = 26.13; p = 0.0094), LEDD (pre-op = 1679.34 mg; post-op = 837.48 mg; p = 0.0049), and number of daily doses (pre-op = 21.266; post-op 12.2; p = 0.0046). No significant decrease was seen in the number of anti-PD medications (pre-op = 3.8; post-op = 3.2; p = 0.16).

Conclusion

Following DBS, severe PD patients demonstrated significant improvements in motor function and medication burden during long-term follow-up. We believe our results prove that DBS is efficacious in the management of severe PD, and that further research should follow to expand DBS criteria to include severe disease.



Disability patterns over the first year after a diagnosis of epilepsy

Publication date: April 2019

Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, Volume 179

Author(s): Ying Xu, Dennis R. Neuen, Nick Glozier, Armin Nikpour, Ernest Somerville, Andrew Bleasel, Carol Ireland, Craig S. Anderson, Maree L. Hackett

Abstract
Objective

To determine the patterns and predictors of disability over the first 12 months after a diagnosis of epilepsy.

Patients and methods

The Sydney Epilepsy Incidence Study to Measure Illness Consequences (SEISMIC) was a prospective, multicenter, community-based study of people with newly diagnosed epilepsy in Sydney, Australia. Disability was assessed using the World Health Organization's, Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) 2.0 12-item version, at baseline (i.e. within 28 days of diagnosis) and 12 months post-diagnosis. Demographic, socioeconomic, clinical and epilepsy-related data, obtained through structured interviews, were entered into multivariable linear regression and shift analysis to determine predictors of greater disability.

Results

Of 259 adults (≥18 years), 190 (73%) had complete WHODAS at baseline (mean ± SD scores 4 ± 6) and follow-up (4 ± 8). After adjustment for age, sex and co-morbidity, greater overall disability at 12 months was associated with lower education (P = 0.05), economic hardship (P = 0.004), multiple antiepileptic medications (P = 0.02) and greater disability (P < 0.001) at the time of diagnosis; these variables explained 38.3% of the variance. Among the 12 WHODAS items, "being emotionally affected by health problems" was the most frequent disability problem identified at both time points (all P < 0.0001). The proportion of participants without problems in that domain improved over 12 months (from 24% to 50%, P < 0.0001), whereas the other 11 items remained relatively stable. Independent baseline predictors of a worse emotional outcome at 12 months were severe/extreme emotional distress (odds ratio [OR] 4.52, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.67–12.24), economic hardship (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.24–4.25) and perceived stigma (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.03–3.93).

Conclusion

Most people report problems with emotional health after a diagnosis of epilepsy but many recover over the next 12 months. Services addressing the social and psychological impact of diagnosis may be needed to improve outcome.



Predictors of reoperation and noninfectious complications following craniotomy for cerebral abscess

Publication date: April 2019

Source: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, Volume 179

Author(s): Michael Longo, Chaim Feigen, Rafael De la Garza Ramos, Yaroslav Gelfand, Murray Echt, Vijay Agarwal

Abstract
Objectives

There is a paucity of literature that examines predictors of reoperation and noninfectious complications following treatment of cerebral abscess with craniotomy. The goal of the present study is to identify predictors for each of these outcomes.

Patients and methods

The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database 2012–2016 file was the data source. Patients were identified using a combination of CPT and ICD-9/10 codes. Exclusions included missing age/gender, secondary surgery, and absent length of stay information. Univariate followed by multivariable analysis using logistic regression was used to identify significant predictors of reoperation and noninfectious postoperative complications (p < 0.05).

Results

166 patients met the above criteria. Median age was 56 (IQR 44–65) and 68.1% of patients were men. The 30-day reoperation rate was 18.1% and increasing white blood cell count (WBC) was identified as a significant risk factor for reoperation (odds ratio [OR] 1.10, 95% CI 1.02–1.19, p = 0.013). Noninfectious complications occurred at a rate of 20.5% at 30 days. Significant predictors were ASA classification ≥4 (OR 4.13, 95% CI 1.74–9.81, p = 0.001), smoking (OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.18–7.78, p = 0.020), and increasing WBC count (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03–1.20, p = 0.007). Emergency case status, abscess location (supratentorial versus infratentorial), nor chronic steroid use demonstrated a significant relationship with the studied outcomes.

Conclusion

Increasing preoperative WBC count predicts both reoperation and noninfectious complications following craniotomy for cerebral abscess. Less modifiable predictors for noninfectious complications which may help anticipate operative risk are smoking and high ASA classification.



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