Τετάρτη, 20 Μαρτίου 2019

Dental Research

Revitalizing Alma-Ata: Strengthening primary oral health care for achieving universal health coverage
Manu Raj Mathur

Indian Journal of Dental Research 2019 30(1):1-2



Effect of smoking on implant–bone interface
SM Balaji

Indian Journal of Dental Research 2019 30(1):3-3



Reconnoitering the association between body mass index and oral health among elementary school children in Hyderabad, Telangana, India
Jagadeeswara Rao Sukhabogi, BR Chandra Shekar, I Venkata Ramana, G Satish Kumar, N Harita, G Annapoorna

Indian Journal of Dental Research 2019 30(1):4-9

Objective: To evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and oral health status among elementary school children in Hyderabad, Telangana, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among elementary school children selected from government, private-aided and private-unaided schools in Hyderabad. A stratified cluster random sampling technique was used to select study participants. All parents were requested to be personally present on the day of examination. All eligible children were assembled in a hall and their height in inches and weight in kilograms were recorded by two calibrated investigators. The oral health status of children was assessed using a predesigned oral health assessment proforma. Plaque status was assessed using Sillness and Loe plaque Index and caries using decayed and filled teeth (dft) by a trained and calibrated investigator. Results: One hundred and seventy-one children (89 males and 82 females) were included in the present study. Mean plaque score was 1.4 ± 0.6 with no significant difference in the mean plaque score between children in three different categories of nutritional status (P = 0.07). Mean dft among primary teeth was 1.1 ± 1.1 with a significantly higher score among children who were malnourished (2.4 ± 0.9) compared to children who were overweight (0.9 ± 0.9) and normal (0.4 ± 0.6) (P < 0.001). Conclusion: BMI was negatively associated with caries experience in primary dentition with no association with plaque scores. Overweight children with malnutrition had significantly higher caries experience compared to children with normal BMI.


Prevalence of Tobacco and associated risk factors among university law students in Indore City
Sonali Gupta, Prashant Mishra, Sandesh Nagarajappa, Sandeep Kumar, Afsheen Lalani

Indian Journal of Dental Research 2019 30(1):10-14

Introduction: Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of death and disability worldwide. The practice of law can be demanding and exceedingly stressful. Trends in tobacco use among young people are important to document because these findings will help inform the development of appropriate preventive intervention programs for youth. Aim: To assess prevalence of tobacco and associated risk factors among university law students in Indore city. Objective: To identify the strength of association related to tobacco consumption. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 278 law students in Indore city using convenient sampling technique. The data was collected using pre-tested close ended self-administered questionnaire. Frequency distribution analysis was performed. Bivariate analysis was done followed by logistic regression analysis. The level of significance for all the tests was set at P < 0.05. Results: The present study revealed that 32% of the study subjects consumed smoking tobacco as compared to 2.5% of smokeless tobacco. Nearly two-third of the law students consumed tobacco at public places 185 (66.5%) under the influence of friends. Only 18 (6.5%) study subjects tried to quit tobacco in the last 12 months whereas 65 (23.4%) of them never wanted to quit the habit of tobacco consumption. A bivariate analysis was performed to identify the risk factors related to tobacco consumption. It was found that male individuals (OR=2.04, P =0.004*) whose family members had the habit of tobacco consumption (OR=2.9, P =0.002*) were at a higher risk for consuming tobacco. The factors that became significant in bivariate analysis were then entered in logistic regression analysis [Enter method] to identify the strength of association. The individuals who had the habit of tobacco consumption among family members emerged as the strongest risk predictor leading to tobacco consumption amongst the students. Conclusion: The present study revealed that smoking form of tobacco consumption (cigarette- 32%) was more prevalent among the male study subjects under the influence of friends and with family members who had the habit of consuming tobacco at their place of residence.


Effect of motivation on oral hygiene and caries status among young adults in Hyderabad City
Patanapu Shiva Kumar, Dolar Doshi, Suhas Kulkarni, Padma Reddy, Srikanth Reddy, Adepu Srilatha

Indian Journal of Dental Research 2019 30(1):15-20

Background: Motivation is a theoretical construct used to explain behavior, it gives the reasons for people's action, desires, and needs, and it drives an individual to a certain action and determines human behavior. Aim: To determine the effect of motivation on oral hygiene and caries status among young adults in Hyderabad city. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 18–20-year-old engineering college students of Nagole Institute of Technology and Sciences. Materials and Methods: Intrinsic motivation was evaluated using a self-reported 12-item dental intrinsic motivation scale (DIM-S). The oral examination included simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) and decayed, missing, filled teeth index (DMFT index). Statistical Analysis Used: Mann–Whitney U-test and ANOVA test were used for comparison among the variables included in the study. Spearman's correlation was used to correlate DIM-S with oral parameters. Results: A total of 393 students participated in the study with majority of them being male (61.8%). It was observed that 69% of the students were extrinsically motivated and only 31% of them were intrinsically motivated. However, intrinsically motivated females had a higher significant score for calculus index–simplified and OHI-S scores. All oral parameters showed a negative correlation, except decayed component and the overall DMFT. However, no statistical significance was noticed among the variables. Conclusion: The present study revealed that to motivate people successfully, one not only has to give them information but also has to pay attention to the individual reasons which restrict their behavior.


Evaluation of knowledge regarding emergency management of avulsed traumatic dental injuries in children among general dental practitioners in India
Pratik Bipinkumar Kariya, Sweta Singh, Seema Bargale, Swara Shah, Narayan Kulkarni, Bhavna H Dave

Indian Journal of Dental Research 2019 30(1):21-26

Context: Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) leading to dental avulsion occur very frequently in society. Management of avulsion is critical for the dentist, as it requires appropriate knowledge. Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of the general dental practitioners (GDPs) regarding the emergency management of TDI leading to avulsion in children. Setting and Design: Questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey design was utilized to assess the knowledge. Subjects and Methods: Data for this cross-sectional survey were collected through questionnaires from July to September 2014. A total of 278 GDP were contacted and requested to fill a pretested questionnaire to assess the knowledge regarding tooth avulsion. The GDPs were grouped on the basis of their educational qualification and years of clinical experience. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test was used for intra- and inter-group comparison. Results: A total of 224 (80.57%) GDPs consented to participate in the survey. Markedly low knowledge levels were noted in the sample irrespective of educational qualification and years of experience with respect to replantation of the avulsed primary tooth, holding the root instead of the crown, choice of appropriate storage medium for transportation of avulsed teeth, use of medications, and splinting type and time. Clinical experience and higher educational qualification of GDPs revealed statistical significant difference in the methods of management for TDI leading to avulsion. Conclusion: Higher professional education and added clinical experience were associated with better knowledge in the management of TDI leading to avulsion. The finding warrants the need for informative educational programs to update and boost the knowledge of practicing dentists regarding emergency management of avulsed teeth.


Attitude and awareness of general population towards radiation hazards and safety: An institutional study
Sneha R Sharma, Freny R Karjodkar, Kaustubh P Sansare, Mohd Saalim, Isha D Mishra, Satyapal Johaley, Shikha N Goyal

Indian Journal of Dental Research 2019 30(1):27-30

Context: Radiological investigations play a pivotal role in the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of procedures. Aim: To assess the knowledge regarding adverse consequences of radiological examination and encourage awareness regarding radiation protection amongst general public. Settings and Design: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study conducted amongst patients visiting the dental outpatient department. Materials and Methods: 1,000 adult male and female patients within the age of 20–70 years who visited the outpatient department during May–July 2017 were included in the study. Statistical Analysis: Comparison of frequencies of responses to each item with age and gender was done using chi square test. For all statistical tests, P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant, keeping α error at 5% and β error at 20%. Results: 85.3% participants had visited a hospital earlier and 69.3% had undergone the procedure of an X-ray earlier. Out of those patients, only 24.7% of the participants had any knowledge about the equipment or the procedure while taking a radiograph. 5.2% of the participants were given any safety measures during the radiological procedure. 14.4% had knowledge of the risks and hazards associated with radiation. Conclusions: This short study showed that there is a need for educating the general population about the hazards and risks associated with radiation exposure.


Pulpotomy with curcumin: Histological comparison with mineral trioxide aggregate in rats
AR Prabhakar, Praveenkumar S Mandroli, Kishore Bhat

Indian Journal of Dental Research 2019 30(1):31-36

Context: It is important to develop new therapeutic materials that have requisite clinical actions, are safe and economical. Aims: This study aims to histologically evaluate curcumin, an extract of turmeric (Curcuma longa) as a pulpotomy agent in rat molars and to compare it to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Settings and Design: Animal study. Subjects and Methods: Twelve Wistar-Albino rats were randomly divided into two groups of 6 each. Pulpotomies were performed on caries free maxillary first and second molars on both sides of the arch, with MTA and curcumin (24 teeth each), respectively. Access cavities were sealed with resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Postoperative histological evaluation of pulpotomized teeth in both groups was done at 7, 14, and 30 days under a light microscope (×10). Statistical Analysis Used: Data were evaluated with Freidman's test and Mann–Whitney test at 0.05 level. Results: (a) There was a gradual reduction in inflammatory cell response in both groups across time periods tested (MTA P = 0.074, curcumin P = 0.039). (b) The overall architecture of pulp was maintained better in the curcumin group across all time periods tested (P = 0.368). (c) Dentinal bridge formation was consistently seen across time periods tested in MTA group (P = 0.9094) and was feeble in curcumin group (P = 0.9094) across time periods tested. Conclusions: Curcumin has been shown to have wound healing properties. It has the potential to be developed into a predictable and cost-effective vital pulp therapy medicament.


The antibacterial influence of nanotopographic titanium, zirconium, and aluminum nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus and porphyromonas gingivalis: An In vitro study
M Karthikeyan, SC Ahila, B Muthu Kumar

Indian Journal of Dental Research 2019 30(1):37-42

Background: Nanoparticle coated implants have revolutionized the field of implantology. Peri-implantitis is one of the main for implant failure. Most implant failures are due to Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Actinomyces concomitant. Aim: To evaluate and compare the antibacterial effect of titanium, zirconium, aluminum nanoparticles against S. aureus and P. gingivalis at 24, 72 hrs and 1 week intervals. Materials and Methods: According to ISO/TR 11175:1993, the samples were prepared in disc shape with 20-mm diameter and 1-mm thickness in Grade IV titanium. The samples were decontaminated by sonicating in acetone and subsequently in water three times for 15 min. A total of eighty samples were made, then coated with nanoparticles, and divided into Group-A (control), Group-B (Ti nanoparticles coating), Group-C (Zi nanoparticles coating), and Group-D (Al nanoparticles coating). The discs were sterilized under ultraviolet radiation and placed in Mueller-Hinton agar medium for S. aureus and blood agar for P. gingivalis. The colonies were counted at 24, 72 hrs and 1 week intervals. Statistical Analysis Used: The values were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey honestly significant difference test. Results: The P < 0.001 showed that statistically significant difference in colony forming unit had been found in titanium nanoparticles coated samples at 24, 72 hrs and 1 week intervals. Conclusion: TiO2 nanoparticle coated titanium discs showed significant antibacterial effect.


Comparative evaluation of salivary zinc concentration in autistic and healthy children in mixed dentition age group-pilot study
Rahul R Deshpande, Pranav Prakash Dungarwal, Komal K Bagde, Priyadarshini S Thakur, Pankti M Gajjar, Ananth P Kamath

Indian Journal of Dental Research 2019 30(1):43-46

Context: Autism prevalence is increasing, with current estimates at 1/68–1/50 individuals diagnosed with autism. Diagnosis is based on behavioral assessments. Early diagnosis and intervention are known to greatly improve functional outcomes in people with autism. Diagnosis, treatment monitoring, and prognosis of autistic children's symptoms could be facilitated with biomarkers to complement behavioral assessments. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate salivary zinc concentration in saliva samples of autistic and healthy children in mixed dentition age group. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional comparative study carried out in dental college and special child school. Unstimulated whole saliva collected for finding a biomarker. Subjects and Methods: Unstimulated whole saliva sample was collected from 10 autistic and 10 healthy children in mixed dentition age group. Diluted saliva sample was then subjected to inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy for the estimation of salivary zinc concentration. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: In children with autism salivary zinc concentration showed a linear equation when compared to healthy children. Conclusions: The low salivary zinc concentration in autistic children can reveal the pathogenesis of autism. 


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