Πέμπτη, 14 Μαρτίου 2019

Dairy Science

Effect of heat treatment on activity of staphylococcal enterotoxins of type A, B, and C in milk

Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science

Author(s): L Necidová, Š. Bursová, D. Haruštiaková, K. Bogdanovičová, I. Lačanin

ABSTRACT

Intoxication by staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) is among the most common causes of food-poisoning outbreaks resulting from the consumption of raw milk or products made thereof. The aim of our study was to analyze the thermal stability of SE and evaluate the inactivation of SE types A, B, and C (SEA, SEB, SEC) by autoclaving at 100°C, 110°C, and 121°C. Milk samples were inoculated with 38 Staphylococcus aureus strains that possessed the ability to produce SEA, SEB, or SEC and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. This incubation was followed by heat treatment at 100°C, 110°C, or 121°C for 3 min. Samples were analyzed by Staph. aureus plate count method on Baird-Parker agar and specifically for the presence of SE. An enzyme-linked immunofluorescent assay (ELFA) on a MiniVIDAS analyzer (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Étoile, France) was used to detect SE, which were determined semi-quantitatively based on test values. The obtained results were analyzed by means of nonparametric statistical methods. All samples (100%; 38/38) were SE-positive before heat treatment, and the positivity rates decreased after heat treatment at 100°C, 110°C, and 121°C to 36.8% (14/38), 34.2% (13/38), and 31.6% (12/38), respectively. The rates of positive samples differed between SEA, SEB, and SEC producers: SEA was detected in the highest amounts both before and after heat treatment. The amount of SE (expressed as test values) decreased significantly after heat treatment. Comparing amounts of SE in positive and negative samples before and after heat treatment, we can conclude that the success of SE inactivation depends on the amount present before heat treatment. The highest amount of SE and the highest rate of SE-positive samples after all heat treatments were found in samples with strains producing SEA. For SEB and SEC, lower amounts of enterotoxin were present and were inactivated at 100°C. Although temperatures of 100°C, 110°C, and 121°C may inactivate SE in milk, the key measures in prevention of staphylococcal enterotoxicosis are avoiding initial contamination of milk by Staph. aureus, promoting consumption of heat-treated milk, and preventing disruption of the cold chain during milk production and processing.



Proposed dairy calf birth certificate data and death loss categorization scheme

Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science

Author(s): J.E. Lombard, F.B. Garry, N.J. Urie, S.M. McGuirk, S.M. Godden, K. Sterner, T.J. Earleywine, D. Catherman, J. Maas

ABSTRACT

The majority of dairy heifer calves in the United States are destined to be dairy replacements. However, many dairy heifer and bull calves die before 6 mo of age. Of these calves, about 6% (more than 500,000 calves) die at birth or shortly after (i.e., currently termed "stillbirth"). An additional 6% of dairy heifers die during the preweaning period. Death loss in dairy calves is primarily due to stillbirths, failure to adapt to extrauterine life, and infectious disease processes. The reasons for preweaning heifer calf deaths caused by infectious diseases are generally categorized based on easily recognizable clinical signs such as digestive disease/scours or respiratory disease. Most causes of calf death can be mitigated by appropriate preventive care or well-tailored treatments, meaning that the typical death loss percentage could be decreased with better management. Producers could gather information on the circumstances near birth and at death if they had appropriate guidance on what details to record and monitor. This paper provides recommendations on data to collect at the time of birth (i.e., calf birth certificate data). The recording of these critical pieces of information is valuable in evaluating trends over time in morbidity and mortality events in dairy calves. Ideally, necropsy examination would substantially improve the identification of cause of death, but even without necropsy, attribution of cause of death can be improved by more carefully defining death loss categories in on-farm record systems. We propose a death loss categorization scheme that more clearly delineates causes of death. Recommendations are provided for additional data to be collected at the time of death. Recording and analyzing birth certificate and death loss data will allow producers and veterinarians to better evaluate associations between calf risk factors and death, with the goal of reducing dairy calf mortality.



Factors associated with dairy farmers' satisfaction and preparedness to adopt recommendations after veterinary herd health visits

Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science

Author(s): Caroline Ritter, Cindy L. Adams, David F. Kelton, Herman W. Barkema

ABSTRACT

Herd health and production consultancy are important aspects of the modern dairy veterinary practice; therefore, veterinary farm visits will likely be more successful if veterinary practitioners communicate effectively and meet farmers' expectations. Objectives were to assess dairy farmers' satisfaction with veterinary advisors and their perceived preparedness to adopt veterinary advice. Furthermore, we assessed whether farmers' satisfaction and preparedness to adopt advice were associated with specific predictor variables; that is, general (demographic) factors of veterinarians or farmers, communication tools used by veterinarians, and veterinarians' affective attributes during the farm visit. Audio-video recordings of 14 dairy veterinarians during 70 herd health and production management farm visits were analyzed using the Roter interaction analysis system. Demographic data, farmers' satisfaction, and farmers' preparedness to adopt advice were obtained by using questionnaires. Overall, farmers were satisfied with their veterinarian's communication during farm visits and 58% of farmers felt "absolutely" prepared to follow veterinary recommendations. Based on multivariable regression analysis, farmers' satisfaction was positively associated with their level of education and the amount of talk the veterinarian dedicated to counseling the farmer. However, satisfaction was negatively association with the ratio between veterinarian talk and farmer talk. In addition to various demographic variables, farmers' preparedness to adopt veterinary advice was positively associated with their satisfaction. Other predictor variables for farmers' preparedness to follow recommendations included increased veterinary counseling and frequent herd data discussions, whereas there was a negative relationship between number of farmer questions and dominance of the veterinarian during the farm visit. Identification of factors influencing farmers' satisfaction and preparedness to adopt advice will make veterinary communication more effective and could inform training of veterinarians in communication.



Olive oil polyphenol extract inhibits vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus isolated from raw milk

Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science

Author(s): Peng Fei, Yunfeng Xu, Shengjuan Zhao, Shaoying Gong, Ling Guo

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to analyze the antibacterial effect of olive oil polyphenol extract (OOPE) against vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus isolated from raw milk and reveal the possible antibacterial mechanism. The diameter of inhibition zone, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, and survival counts of bacterial cells in sterile normal saline and pasteurized milk were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of OOPE against B. cereus vegetative cells. The changes in intracellular ATP concentration, cell membrane potential, content of bacterial protein, and cell morphology were analyzed to reveal possible mechanisms of action. Our results showed the diameter of inhibition zone, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration of OOPE against B. cereus vegetative cells were 18.44 ± 0.55 mm, 0.625 mg/mL, and 1.25 mg/mL, respectively. Bacillus cereus GF-1 vegetative cells were decreased to undetectable levels from about 8 log cfu/mL after treatments with 0.625 mg/mL of OOPE in normal saline at 30°C for 3 h and in pasteurized milk at 30°C for 10 h. The antibacterial mechanisms of OOPE against B. cereus GF-1 vegetative cells may be due to the reduction of intracellular ATP concentrations, cell membrane depolarization, decrease of bacterial protein content, and leakage from cytoplasm. These findings illustrated that OOPE could be used to prevent the growth of contaminating B. cereus cells in dairy products.



Effect of energy source in calf milk replacer on performance, digestibility, and gut permeability in rearing calves

Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science

Author(s): L. Amado, H. Berends, L.N. Leal, J. Wilms, H. Van Laar, W.J.J. Gerrits, J. Martín-Tereso

ABSTRACT

Current calf milk replacer (CMR) compositions significantly differ from whole milk in their levels of energy, protein, and minerals. Energy source is one of the major differences, as CMR contains high levels of lactose, whereas whole milk contains higher levels of fat. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of partially exchanging lactose for fat on performance, digestibility, and gut permeability in calves fed twice daily on a high feeding plane. Lactose and fat were exchanged in the CMR formulation on a weight–weight basis. The CMR were isonitrogenous but not isoenergetic. A total of 60 male Holstein-Friesian calves were assigned to 1 of 30 blocks based on serum IgG, body weight, and date of collection after birth. Within each block, calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: high fat and high lactose. The CMR was provided twice daily until 49 d of age, followed by a gradual weaning period of 14 d. Starter, straw, and water were available ad libitum throughout the complete study. Exchanging lactose for fat did not affect growth; intakes of starter, straw, water, crude protein, or total energy; or apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients. Gastrointestinal permeability was assessed by measuring the recovery of lactulose and Cr in 24-h urine and the Cr concentration and lactulose:d-mannitol ratio in serum following an oral pulse dose. Urinary recoveries of Cr and lactulose were generally low in both treatments but were higher in calves fed the high-fat CMR. Accordingly, the serum lactulose:d-mannitol ratio and serum Cr concentrations were higher in calves fed the high-fat CMR. In wk 1 and during the weaning transition, calves fed the high-fat CMR had significantly fewer abnormal fecal scores. In conclusion, exchanging lactose for fat in the CMR did not affect growth performance, total feed intake, or nutrient digestibility. The high-fat CMR was associated with an increase in permeability markers but positively influenced fecal scores in calves.



Short communication: Global transcriptome analysis of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis in response to gradient freezing

Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science

Author(s): Jike Lu, Lianming Cui, Songyang Lin, Limin Hao, Nana Cao, Juanjuan Yi, Xin Liu, Laizheng Lu, Qiaozhen Kang

ABSTRACT

Lactic acid bacteria are often preserved as starter cultures by freezing to extend shelf stability as well as maintain cell viability and acidification activity. Previous studies showed that the endocyte extracted from gradient-freezing pretreated cells could act as lyoprotectant in the lyophilization process of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis. In this study, the molecular mechanisms of L. lactis in response to gradient freezing exposure are described using high-throughput sequencing. Nineteen of 56 genes were upregulated after gradient freezing, whereas 37 genes were downregulated. Further validation results of quantitative real-time PCR experiments were consistent with the RNA sequencing. Gene Ontology (http://www.geneontology.org/) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG; https://www.genome.jp/kegg/) pathway were used to analyze the differentially expressed genes. Several pathways, such as glutathione metabolism, ATP-binding cassette transport, metabolism of cell wall and cell membrane components, and stress response-related pathways, were affected by gradient freezing. Six genes relevant to freezing stress response were selected for quantitative real-time PCR, including 3 upregulated genes (hisKeutDdukA) and 3 downregulated genes (alsyedFpepN). The Gene Ontology enrichment and KEGG pathway analyses showed these genes may influence stress response-related pathways, improving the survival of the L. lactis under freezing stress. The identification of these genes deepened an understanding about their response under freezing stress, helping us find potential genes or pathways related to gradient freezing for further research on lyoprotectants.



Farm-level risk factors for bovine mastitis in Dutch automatic milking dairy herds

Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science

Author(s): Z. Deng, G. Koop, T.J.G.M. Lam, I.A. van der Lans, J.C.M. Vernooij, H. Hogeveen

ABSTRACT

Automatic milking systems (AMS) are installed on a growing number of dairy farms worldwide. Management to support good udder health might be different on farms with an AMS compared with farms milking with a conventional milking system, as risk factors for mastitis on farms using an AMS may differ. The aim of this study was to identify farm level factors associated with mastitis on Dutch dairy farms using an AMS. In 2008, risk factor data were collected using a questionnaire combined with on-farm recordings of cow, stall, and AMS hygiene on 135 farms. These risk factor data were linked to 4 udder-health-associated dependent variables: average herd somatic cell count (HeSCCav), variance of the average herd somatic cell count (SCC) on test days (HeSCCvar), the average proportion of new high SCC cases (NHiSCC), and the farmer-reported annual incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM). We employed regression models using multiple imputation to deal with missing values. Due to the high dimensionality of the risk factor data, we also performed nonlinear principal component analysis (NLPCA) and regressed the dependent variables on the principal components (PC). Good hygiene of cows and of AMS were found to be related to a lower HeSCCav and less NHiSCC. Effective postmilking teat disinfection was associated with a lower NHiSCC. A higher bulk tank milk SCC threshold for farmers' action was related to more NHiSCC. Larger farm size was related to lower HeSCCvar but higher NHiSCC. Negative attitude of farmers to animal health, higher frequency of checking AMS, and more time spent on viewing computer data were all positively related to higher IRCM. An NLPCA with 3 PC explained 16.3% of the variance in the risk factor variables. Only the first 2 PC were associated with mastitis. The first PC reflected older and larger farms with poor cow hygiene and AMS hygiene, and was related to higher HeSCCav and NHiSCC, whereas the second PC reflected newly built smaller farms with poor cow hygiene and low milk production, and was associated with higher HeSCCvar and NHiSCC, but lower IRCM. Our study suggests that many of the risk factors on conventional milking system farms are applicable to AMS farms, specifically concerning hygiene of the cows and the milking machine, but on large AMS farms, udder health may need more attention than on smaller AMS farms. Multiple imputation is instrumental to deal with missing values and NLPCA is a useful technique to process high dimensional data in our study.



Space allowance influences individually housed Holstein male calves' age at feed consumption, standing behaviors, and measures of immune resilience before and after step-down weaning

Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science

Author(s): L.E. Hulbert, M.S. Calvo-Lorenzo, M.A. Ballou, K.C. Klasing, F.M. Mitloehner

ABSTRACT

Many dairy calves in the southwestern regions of the United States are raised in wooden hutches with 1.23 m2 of free space that house 3 calves individually. Producers claim that calves in hutch systems are not ready to wean and be placed in groups at the country-average age of 6 wk. Calves may remain in this individual housing system until as late as 10 wk of age. The objective of this study was to modify space allowance of hutches and evaluate weaning readiness using age at solid feed consumption, standing behaviors, and measures of immunity. Calves were randomly assigned at 4 d of age to conventional (CONV; 1.23 m2 of space; n = 18), moderate (MOD; 1.85 m2 of space; n = 17), or maximized (MAX; 3.71 m2 of space; n = 19) space allowance in hutches. These modifications also changed the number of calves housed per hutch from 3 (CONV) to 2 (MOD) and 1 (MAX). Calves were fed milk replacer via bottle twice daily until weaning and offered ad libitum feed throughout the experiment. Step-down weaning was initiated (Wi) at age 53 or 54 d by withdrawal of the p.m. bottle and was completed (Wc) 11 d later by removal of the a.m. milk replacer. Accelerometer data for standing behaviors were collected relative to Wi (3 consecutive days to represent −4 wk, −3 d, 3 d, and 3 and 5 wk). Blood samples were collected in the a.m. just before Wi (d 0) and at d 3, 11, 14, and 18 after Wi. Calves provided with more space (MOD and MAX) compared with CONV calves consumed feed at an earlier age and had slightly healthier erythrocytes, greater circulating glucose, and fewer circulating eosinophils. The CONV calves had haptoglobin (Hp) responses to the stressors of both Wi and Wc and had more IFN-γ from whole blood stimulated with phytohemagglutinin-P. The MAX calves had the least active neutrophils (phagocytosis and oxidative burst), but MOD calves' leukocytes secreted the most TNF-α from whole blood stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Just before and after weaning, MAX calves spent more time per day in the standing position than CONV and MOD calves and had an Hp response to Wc, but MOD calves did not have an Hp response to Wi or Wc. Based on these results, MOD calves were the most ready for weaning; therefore, they potentially can be moved to group housing at an earlier age than CONV calves, thus improving animal welfare concerns over space allowance and individual housing.



Effect of diet energy density and genomic residual feed intake on prebred dairy heifer feed efficiency, growth, and manure excretion

Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science

Author(s): K.T. Williams, K.A. Weigel, W.K. Coblentz, N.M. Esser, H. Schlesser, P.C. Hoffman, H. Su, M.S. Akins

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to determine the growth, feed efficiency, and manure excretion of prebred dairy heifers with differing predicted genomic residual feed intakes (RFI) when offered diets differing in energy density. Prebred Holstein heifers (n = 128, ages 4 to 8 mo) were blocked by weight (low, medium-low, medium-high, or high) with 32 heifers per block. Heifers in each weight block were grouped by RFI and randomly assigned to obtain 2 pens of high (HRFI) and 2 pens of low RFI (LRFI) heifers within each block (8 heifers/pen). Heifers with LRFI were hypothesized to have greater feed efficiency than HRFI heifers. Dietary treatments were a high-energy diet (HE; 66.6% total digestible nutrients, 14.0% crude protein, and 36.3% neutral detergent fiber, dry matter basis) and a low-energy diet (LE; 63.8% total digestible nutrients, 13.5% crude protein, and 41.2% neutral detergent fiber, dry matter basis). Each pen of heifers was randomly assigned to a treatment to obtain a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (2 RFI levels × 2 diet energy densities). Diets were offered in a 120-d trial. Dry matter intake was not affected by diet, RFI, or their interaction. Average daily gain (ADG) was affected by diet, with heifers fed HE having greater ADG than heifers fed LE. In addition, RFI affected ADG, with LRFI heifers having greater ADG than HRFI heifers, whereas the interaction of RFI and diet was not significant. Feed efficiency was improved for heifers fed the HE diet, but it was not affected by RFI or the interaction of RFI and diet. Overall, feed efficiency of prebred heifers was not dependent on predicted genomic RFI, because the greater ADG of LRFI heifers was accompanied by slightly higher dry matter intake. Feed efficiency of heifers was reduced when heifers were fed the LE diet, but this resulted in more optimal ADG compared with the HE diet fed for ad libitum intake.



Short communication: Production of antimicrobial peptide S100A8 in the goat mammary gland and effect of intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide on S100A8 concentration in milk

Publication date: Available online 7 March 2019

Source: Journal of Dairy Science

Author(s): F.Y. Purba, T. Nii, Y. Yoshimura, N. Isobe

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the production site of antimicrobial peptide S100A8 in the goat mammary gland and changes in its concentration in milk after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Sixteen Tokara goats were used in this study for mammary gland tissue, blood leukocyte, and milk somatic cell collection and LPS challenge. The mRNA expression and protein localization of S100A8 in the mammary gland parenchyma and teat, blood leukocytes, and milk somatic cells were examined by reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemistry. The S100A8 concentration in milk was measured at 0 to 144 h after intramammary challenge of LPS by enzyme immunoassay. The mRNA of S100A8 was expressed in the parenchyma and teat, leukocytes isolated from blood, and milk somatic cells. Antimicrobial peptide S100A8 was immunolocalized in the outermost layer of the teat skin of udders with and without LPS infusion, whereas in the mammary gland it was immunolocalized only in the leukocytes infiltrated in the alveoli after LPS infusion. Antimicrobial peptide S100A8 was also immunolocalized in the blood and milk leukocytes. The number of S100A8-positive cells in milk was higher than that in blood. The concentration of S100A8 in milk increased significantly at 72 h after intramammary infusion of LPS. These results suggest that S100A8 is produced in the leukocytes and that its secretion into milk is affected by LPS stimulation.



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