Τετάρτη, 6 Μαρτίου 2019

Clinical Practice

Clinical effect of balloon kyphoplasty in elderly patients with multiple osteoporotic vertebral fracture
Q Liu, J Cao, JJ Kong

Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice 2019 22(3):289-292

Objective: This study aims to discuss the clinical effect of balloon kyphoplasty on elderly patients with multiple osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Methods: The observation group was treated with balloon kyphoplasty, and the control group was managed with conservative treatment. Image indices, pain degree, daily life disturbance, and occurrences of complications were compared between the two groups. Results: In total, 116 elderly patients with multiple osteoporotic vertebral fracture admitted in our hospital from January 2016 to June 2017 were chosen and divided randomly into observation (n = 58) and control groups (n = 58). The observation group showed a significantly higher trailing edge, leading edge, and midcourt line and larger upper thoracic kyphosis compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Before the treatment, no statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of visual analog scale (VAS) score and daily life disturbance score (P > 0.05). However, the VAS score and the daily life disturbance score of the two groups decreased sharply after the treatment (P < 0.05). Moreover, the VAS score and the daily life disturbance score of the observation group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P < 0.05). The observation group showed lower occurrence rate of complications compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Balloon kyphoplasty can significantly improve the image indices of patients with multiple osteoporotic vertebral fractures and relieve their pain degree and daily life disturbance. Balloon kyphoplasty exhibited a low occurrence rate of complications and high safety and is, thus, worthy of clinical applications. 


A cross-sectional study of cytomegalovirus retinitis in HIV-1 infected adults in Nigeria
MA Adeiza, AG Habib

Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice 2019 22(3):293-297

Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is one of the most important opportunistic infections in HIV-infected patients in developing countries before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. In Nigerian and African HIV populations, CMV retinitis is under-reported. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 250 HIV-infected adults ≥18 years were recruited by systematic random sampling from March to August 2013. Using a structured questionnaire, information was obtained on socio-demographic characteristics and symptoms of visual impairment. HIV disease was staged according to the WHO clinical staging, and CD4+ T-lymphocyte count was measured. Participants with symptoms of impaired vision and/or CD4+ T-lymphocyte count <50 cells/μL had indirect ophthalmoscopic examination of the retina to detect CMV related eye lesions. Results: Two hundred and fifty adults were HIV-infected, out of which 114 (46%) were males and 136 (54%) were females. The mean age of study participants was 35 years. History of impaired vision was reported by 21 (8.4%) of participants. The right eye was involved in 7 (33%), the left eye in 4 (19%), and both eyes in 10 (48%) of participants. The predominant symptoms were blurred vision 9 (43%), floaters 9 (43%), and blindness 3 (14%). Among participants who had indirect ophthalmoscopy, 3 (1.2%) had characteristic retinal changes suggestive of CMV retinitis. Two (67%) of patients with CMV retinitis were females and 1 (33%) was male. Mean CD4+ count was 25.33 ± 14.19 and all were WHO HIV clinical stage 4 with death occurring within 6 months of diagnosis. Conclusion: CMV retinitis though rare is associated with advanced HIV disease and attendant morbidity and mortality. We recommend integration of CMV diagnostic services and ophthalmological services as routine in HIV care and treatment programs in Nigeria targeted toward high-risk patients. 


Factors associated with intraventricular hemorrhage among preterm neonates in Aminu Kano teaching hospital
CC Egwu, WN Ogala, ZL Farouk, AM Tabari, AH Dambatta

Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice 2019 22(3):298-304

Background: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a severe complication among preterm neonates which can result in hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, behavioural disorders, learning disabilities, or death. It is important to identify the factors associated with IVH in order to prevent these neurological consequences and reduce the resultant burden of neurological disease. Aim: To determine the factors associated with IVH among preterm neonates. Design: The study was prospective cross-sectional in design. Subjects and Methods: Ninety-nine preterm neonates who were < 37 completed weeks of gestation were recruited consecutively from the Special Care Baby Unit of a Tertiary Hospital. Transfontanelle ultrasonography was used to detect IVH and the factors associated with IVH were classified into: neonatal, maternal (prenatal), and clinical factors. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 for windows. Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact probability test were used as appropriate. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. The association between these factors and IVH was evaluated by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: Among the 99 preterm neonates studied, 36 (36.4%) of them were between 28 and 31 weeks of gestation, whereas 63 (63.6%) were between 32 and 36 weeks of gestation. In univariate analysis, the factors found to be associated with IVH were lower gestational age <32 weeks gestation, low Apgar score of <3 in 1 and 5 min, respectively, outborn status of neonates, lower social class, need for respiratory support, and blood transfusion. However, the lower gestational age (odds ratio [OR]: 10.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.95–61.04) and respiratory support (continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)) [OR: 52.24; CI: 3.40–721.84] were retained as significant predictors of IVH in the multivariate logistic regression model. Conclusion: The lower gestational age and respiratory support (CPAP) are independent predictors for IVH. Prevention of preterm delivery and improvement in interventions of neonatal care (CPAP) are necessary to prevent the risk for IVH especially in the early preterm neonates. 


Primary molar pulpotomies with different hemorrhage control agents and base materials: A randomized clinical trial
G Atasever, TI Keceli, S Uysal, HC Gungor, S Olmez

Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice 2019 22(3):305-312

Objective: To evaluate the clinical and radiographical success of primary molar pulpotomies which used 15.5% ferric sulfate (FS) or 1.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for hemostasis and zinc oxide–eugenol (ZOE) and calcium hydroxide (CH) pastes as base materials. Methods: In 29 healthy children, 80 primary molars were randomly allocated to one of the study groups: Group 1: FS-ZOE, Group 2: FS-CH, Group 3: NaOCl-ZOE, and Group 4: NaOCl-CH. After hemostasis with the respective solutions, pulp stumps and floor of the pulp chambers were covered with either ZOE or CH pastes. All teeth were restored with stainless steel crowns. Follow-up examinations were carried out at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Results: One tooth in Group 1 and two teeth in Group 4 were extracted because of pain and periapial pathosis at sixth month. After 12 months, clinical success rates of pulpotomies in Groups 1–4 were 95%, 100%, 100%, and 89.5%, respectively. The differences were not significant (P = 0.548). Radiographic success rates for Groups 1–4 were 80%, 88.9%, 78.9%, and 84.2%, respectively. No statistically significant difference was found (P = 0.968). Pain on percussion was the most observed clinical finding. However, internal root resorption was the most common radiological finding and it was observed significantly more in mandibular primary molars (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Both ZOE and CH can be preferred as base materials after hemostasis achieved by the use of 15.5% FS or 1.25% NaOCl in primary tooth pulpotomy. 


In Vitro evaluation of the wear of primary tooth enamel against different ceramic and composite resin materials
A Bolaca, Y Erdogan

Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice 2019 22(3):313-319

Background: Although there are several studies on permanent tooth wear caused by dental materials, studies concerning primary teeth are limited. Aim: To evaluate the wear of primary tooth enamel against different ceramic and composite resin materials. Settings and Design: In vitro study. Materials and Methods: We assessed five materials (n = 10 per group): monolithic zirconia (group Z), lithium disilicate glass ceramic (group L), resin nanoceramic (group R), nanohybrid composite resin (group C), and primary tooth enamel (group E). The mesiopalatal cusps of primary maxillary second molars were used as antagonists. Wear tests were performed in a dual-axis chewing simulator, and the volume loss in the antagonist tooth was evaluated using a laser scanner and three-dimensional profiling system. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance with Tukey's post hoc tests (P < 0.05). Results: The maximum antagonist tooth wear was observed in group L (3.84 ± 0.7 mm3), followed by groups C (3.68 ± 0.76 mm3), R (3.48 ± 0.71 mm3), Z (2.66 ± 0.65 mm3), and E (1.66 ± 0.42 mm3). Volume loss was significantly lesser in group Z than in groups L and C (P < 0.05), whereas there were no significant differences among groups L, C, and R. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, our findings suggest that zirconia should be used for full coronal coverage in primary tooth restorations because it causes lesser antagonist tooth wear than does lithium disilicate, resin nanoceramic, and nanohybrid composite resin. 


The evaluation of preoperative and postoperative fetuin-A levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism
M Keskin, C Culha, NE Gulcelik, LI Al, M Senes, Y Aral

Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice 2019 22(3):320-327

Objectives: Our objective was to evaluate preoperative and postoperative serum fetuin-A levels in female patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and search for the relationship with parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D (25OHD). Although a role for fetuin-A is suggested in regulating bone mineralization, its function has not been completely defined. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 43 female patients with PHPT and 30 healthy women were recruited as the control group. We evaluated 73 women because we had only women patients with PHPT. Of the 43 patients, 10 symptomatic and 23 asymptomatic patients were surgically treated, whereas 10 patients were not operated. In all 43 patients, 25OHD, PTH, fetuin-A levels, and bone mineral densitometry were evaluated. The biochemical parameters of 33 operated patients were reevaluated at the postoperative sixth week. Results: Fetuin-A levels of the patients with PHPT were significantly higher than that in the controls (56.6 ± 13.8 vs. 42.6 ± 20.7 ng/mL; P = 0.010). Fetuin-A levels of the operated patients were higher than nonoperated group. Furthermore, serum fetuin-A levels of the nonoperated patients were not different from those of controls. After parathyroidectomy, fetuin-A (41.5 ± 25.2 vs. 56.4 ± 13.7 ng/mL; P = 0.003), PTH [80.0 (51.5–137.5) vs. 211.0 (151.5–278.5) pg/mL; P < 0.001], and calcium (9.2 ± 0.7 vs. 10.7 ± 0.8 mg/dL; P < 0.001) values were found to be decreased significantly. Conclusion: In this study, fetuin-A levels of patients with PHPT were higher than those of the controls and significantly decreased after parathyroidectomy compared with the preoperative levels. Fetuin-A levels could be a beneficial marker to determine the changes in bone metabolism of the patients with PHPT and to detect the patients suitable for surgery. 


Evaluation of the influence of various restoration techniques on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with different cavity wall thicknesses
ET Basaran, Y Gokce

Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice 2019 22(3):328-334

Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different restoration techniques on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with different wall thicknesses. Materials and Methods: Extracted and endodontically treated 210 premolars were randomly divided into three thickness groups [2 mm (A), 1.5 mm (B), and 1 mm (C)] and, each group was further divided into seven restoration subgroups (n = 10): direct composite (control) (K), composite with fiber on cavity floor (KT), composite with fiber on occlusal level (KO), fiber post and composite (FP), inlay (L), fiber on cavity floor and inlay (LT), and inlay and fiber on occlusal level (LO). Fracture test was performed, and data were compared with Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U tests (P < 0.05). Results: There were no differences between the subgroups in A and C statistically (P > 0.05). However, in B, KO subgroup showed statistically higher values (P = 0.039). Conclusion: Wall support of 2 mm was adequate, and support of 1 mm was completely insufficient. When the wall thickness was 1.5 mm, direct restoration with fiber at the occlusal level significantly improved resistance. 


Effect of different surface treatments and ceramic primers on shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement to zirconia ceramic
NE Saleh, MC Guven, G Yildirim, F Erol

Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice 2019 22(3):335-341

Aims: To evaluate the effect of different surface treatments and ceramic primers on the shear bond strength (SBS) of self-adhesive resin cement to zirconia ceramic. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 zirconia discs (10 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height; StarCeram Z-Med, H.C. Starck, Selb, Germany) were prepared from pre-sintered zirconia blocks. Discs were divided into two groups according to surface treatment: (a) airborne particle abrasion (sandblasting) with 50-μm Al2O3 particles and (b) 9.5% hydrofluoric acid etching. Each of these groups was subdivided into two groups according to the type of primer applied: (a) Z-Prime Plus primer and (b) Clearfil Ceramic Primer. A self-adhesive resin cement (Multilink Speed, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) was used to bond with polyethylene molds. All specimens were tested at thermocycled (5000 cycles at 5–55°C for 30 s) conditions. The SBS of the luting cement to the ceramic was measured in a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). Results: The sandblasted groups showed significantly higher SBS values than the acid-etched groups for both primers (P = 0.0001). Independent of the surface treatment, the Z-Prime Plus primer groups showed higher SBS values than the Clearfil Ceramic Primer groups (P = 0.0001). Conclusions: Sandblasting is a more effective method to increase bond strength on zirconia ceramics than hydrofluoric acid etching, and the application of Z-Prime Plus primer increases SBS better than Clearfil Ceramic Primer. 


Clinical and radiographic characterization of primary seminomas and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors
L Gu, L Zhang, N Hou, M Li, W Shen, X Xie, Y Teng

Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice 2019 22(3):342-349

Background: Primary malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors (PMMGCTs) including seminomas and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCTs) are rare, and sometimes the diagnosis is very difficult. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical characteristics, biomarkers, and imaging findings of seminomas and NSGCTs and to determine whether these features could help distinguish these two types of PMMGCT. Material and Methods: A retrospective study of 24 male patients with histopathologically proven PMMGCT was performed. We collected the information of computed tomography (CT) (the scan area ranged from the apex of lung to the costophrenic angles) and magnetic resonance imaging blood test and histology characteristics of these patients. Results: Twelve of 24 cases were confirmed to be seminomas, whereas the other 12 cases were NSGCTs. Alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) was found to be elevated in all patients with NSGCT, whereas none of the patients with seminomas had elevated AFP level. Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) level was elevated in all the patients with seminomas (seven/seven), whereas in NSGCT only two of seven patients had elevated β-HCG. Lactate dehydrogenase level was increased in five of the nine patients with seminomas, as well as in the eight patients with NSGCT. CT imaging revealed that 12 masses from the seminoma group were homogeneous, soft tissue opacity and showed minimal contrast enhancement. On the contrary, all 12 NSGCT cases showed cystic and solid masses; on contrast-enhanced CT, heterogeneous enhancement was found on the capsule of the tumor, septum, and solid masses. Conclusion: Seminomas and NSGCT showed different profiles of tumor biomarkers and radiographic features. Evidence from serum test, histopathological analysis, and imaging should be combined to ensure the accurate diagnosis of these two types of PMMGCT. 


An In-vitro study on thermal changes during implant drilling with different irrigation volumes
U Mercan, M Sumer, OA Kaya, I Keskiner, DG Meral, O Erdogan

Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice 2019 22(3):350-354

Objective: Irrigation with saline is one of the essential methods for reducing the heat generated during dental implant osteotomy. High irrigation volume impairs visibility of the surgical field, thus complicates the surgery. In this study, we aimed to determine the optimal irrigation volume for heat reduction during dental implant drilling. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two implant osteotomies were prepared on four fresh cow ribs. Heat generated during the final implant drilling was measured both with infrared thermography and thermocouple method. Initial and maximum temperatures were measured at four different irrigation volumes; 32, 44, 56, and 68 ml/min. Results: Both measurement methods showed that the amount of temperature rise is associated with the irrigation volume during implant drilling. There is no further decrease in temperature rise above irrigation volume of 56 ml/min. Conclusion: Saline irrigation with 56 ml/min provides sufficient heat reduction during dental implant drilling and higher irrigation volumes are not necessary. 


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