Πέμπτη, 7 Μαρτίου 2019

Anesthesia

Peritubal infiltration of fentanyl compared to dexmedetomidine with ropivacaine in percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A randomized comparative analysis
Sumit Soni, Kalpesh Parmar, Shyam Meena Charan, Sameer Sethi, Naveen B Naik

Anesthesia: Essays and Researches 2019 13(1):1-6

Context: Dexmedetomidine has been found as an effective adjuvant in various nerve blocks. Despite several studies on dexmedetomidine with ropivacaine, there is no study on comparing with fentanyl in peritubal infiltration in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the addition of dexmedetomidine or fentanyl in peritubal local anesthetic infiltration on pain scores and analgesic consumption in patients who underwent PCNL. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, tertiary care center-based study. Subjects and Methods: A total of 60 American Society of Anesthesiologists Class I, II, and III patients were selected and randomly divided into two groups: Group RF ropivacaine and fentanyl (n = 30) and Group RD ropivacaine and dexmedetomidine (n = 30). Balanced general anesthesia was given. After completion of the surgery, peritubal infiltration was given at 6 and 12 O'clock positions under fluoroscopic guidance. Postoperative pain was assessed using the visual analog scale and dynamic visual analog scale rating 0–10 for initial 48 h. Postoperative sedation was assessed using five-point sedation score. Time to first rescue analgesic, number of doses of tramadol, and total consumption of tramadol required in 48 h were noted. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive data were expressed in mean and standard deviation for between-group comparisons; the Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for categorical variables, whereas t-test and Mann–Whitney U-test were used to compare continuous variables between two groups. Results: Duration of analgesia in group RD (12.87 ± 3.85) is more prolonged than group RF (8.13 ± 3.28) h. Total dose of rescue analgesia required in 48 h in group RF was higher as compared to group RD. Conclusions: Addition of dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine is more effective than fentanyl in terms of prolongation of analgesic efficacy of local anesthetic in peritubal block along with short-lived mild sedation.


Intra-articular morphine versus dexmedetomedine for knee arthroscopy under local anesthesia
Doaa Galal Diab, Alaaeldin Adel Elmaddawy, Abdelrahman Elganainy

Anesthesia: Essays and Researches 2019 13(1):7-12

Background: Knee arthroscopy has both diagnostic and therapeutic applications which can be performed under general, regional, or local anesthesia. Morphine is used as an additive to local anesthetics. Dexmedetomedine, the highly selective alpha-2 (α2)-adrenoceptor agonist with the sedative and analgesic effect can be used also to augment local anesthetic effect. Patients and Methods: Sixty patients submitted for elective knee arthroscopy whose age between 25 and 45 years, of either sex, the American society of anethesiologists physical status Classes I and II at a university hospital were enrolled in this study. Patients were classified into two groups. Morphine Group (M) (n = 30): Patients received 20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine plus 5 ml of 0.2% lidocaine with epinephrine 1:200,000 plus 1 mg morphine. Dexmedetomedine Group (D) (n = 30): Patients received 20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine plus 5 ml of 0.2% lidocaine with epinephrine 1:200,000 plus 1 μg/kg dexmedetomedine. Results: Demographic data of patients showed no significant difference among the studied groups. Heart rate (HR) was significantly lower in (D) Group compared to that of (M) Group 5 min from the start of procedure to immediately postoperatively. Moreover, (D) Group showed a significant decrease in HR 10 min up to 35 min intraoperatively compared to the basal value. Furthermore, mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) was significantly lower in (D) Group compared to that of (M) Group 15 min from the start of surgery up to 1 h postoperatively. Furthermore, (D) Group showed a significant decrease in MBP 15 min intraoperative up to 2 h postoperatively compared to the basal value. While there was no significant difference in (visual analogue score [VAS], onset and total consumption of ketorolac, surgeon and patients' satisfaction, side effects in (D) Group compared to (M) Group, respectively. Conclusion: Addition of either morphine or dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine intraarticularly improved both intraoperative anesthesia and postoperative analgesia with minimal side effects or complications in knee arthroscopy, with superiority of dexmedetomidine compared to morphine on hemodynamic stability.


A comparison of stress response between insertion of gastro-laryngeal tube and endotracheal intubation in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
Josemine Davis, Deepak Kumar Sreevastava, Deepak Dwivedi, Siddaramesh Gadgi, Saurabh Sud, Puja Dudeja

Anesthesia: Essays and Researches 2019 13(1):13-18

Background: Complex gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopic procedures like endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) require deep sedation or general anesthesia. Comorbidities with the poor physiological condition warrant endotracheal intubation to prevent hypoxia and aspiration. The gastro-laryngeal tube (GLT), a new supraglottic airway device with a separate channel for endoscope looks promising. Aims: The aim of the study is to compare the stress response during insertion of GLT and endotracheal intubation (ETT) in patients undergoing upper GI endoscopic procedures like ERCP. Subjects and Methods: This control versus comparison study comprised two groups with 30 patients each who underwent ETT and GLT insertion. The standard general anesthesia technique was used. In GLT group, the device was inserted without neuromuscular blocker. In ETT group, injection atracurium 0.5 mg/kg intravenous was administered as muscle relaxant for aiding endotracheal intubation. Hemodynamic parameters and time taken for the insertion of GLT/ETT were recorded. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Student's t-test was used to compare quantitative data between the groups. ANOVA test was applied for intragroup comparisons between GLT and ETT groups. Categorical variables were analyzed using the Chi-square test. Results: Heart rate and mean arterial pressure increased from baseline in ETT group, following laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation as well as with GLT insertion. However, the stress response caused by endotracheal intubation was significantly greater than that caused by GLT insertion. Conclusion: GLT as an airway device is a safe alternative with decreased stress response compared to endotracheal intubation for upper GI endoscopy procedures.


The effect of forced-air warmer, ondansetron or their combination on shivering in pregnant women coming for elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia: A prospective, randomized controlled comparative study
KS Ram Kiran, Kalyani Surya Dhana Lakshmi Sangineni

Anesthesia: Essays and Researches 2019 13(1):19-24

Context: Perioperative shivering can occur in up to 85% of patients undergoing cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. It has many detrimental effects and disrupts early mother-child bonding. Therefore, it should ideally be prevented by either pharmacologic or nonpharmacological means. Aims: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative forced-air warming, ondansetron or their combination in preventing perioperative shivering in patients undergoing elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. Settings and Design: A prospective randomized controlled comparative study done at the tertiary care center. Subjects and Methods: A total of 120 patients undergoing elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomly assigned to three groups. Group O received ondansetron 4 mg intravenously (i.v.) after giving block with no forced air warming. Group W received forced-air warming intraoperatively. Group C received ondansetron 4 mg i.v. after giving block plus intraoperative forced-air warming. Core temperature (tympanic membrane) and the arm skin temperature were measured and shivering was graded simultaneously. Statistical Analysis Used: Parametric data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Student's paired t-test where ever appropriate. Nonparametric data were analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis and the Chi-square test. Values of P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Shivering incidence was higher in Group O and Group W being 17.5% and 20%, respectively, and least in Group C being 5%. The incidence of Grade ≥3 shivering requiring rescue drug was lower in Group C (2.5%) compared to that of the Groups W (5%) and O (10%) but was not statistically significant (P = 0.21). Conclusions: Combined use of ondansetron and forced- air warmer was more effective in reducing the incidence of shivering in pregnant women during elective cesarean section than when used individually.


Efficacy of dexmedetomidine as an adjunct in aiding video laryngoscope-assisted assessment of vocal cord movements at extubation following total thyroidectomy
Santhosh Djearadjane, Sunil Rajan, Jerry Paul, Lakshmi Kumar

Anesthesia: Essays and Researches 2019 13(1):25-30

Background: Assessment of vocal cord movements following total thyroidectomy diagnoses recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Use of videoscope along with sedatives may blunt hemodynamic responses seen with the conduct of direct laryngoscopy for assessing vocal cord mobility. Aims: The primary objective of this study was to assess changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during vocal cord assessment following total thyroidectomy using video laryngoscope, with and without the use of dexmedetomidine as an adjunct. Secondary objectives included assessment of changes in heart rate (HR), patient reactivity score along with ease of laryngoscopy and vocal cord visibility. Settings and Design: This randomized, prospective, unblinded study was conducted in 54 patients at a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: Group D received dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg, once the thyroid was removed. Group S did not receive dexmedetomidine. Hemodynamic response at extubation, patient reactivity, ease of laryngoscopy, and ease of vocal cord assessment were noted. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test and Independent t-test. Results: Baseline HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and MAP were comparable between the groups. However subsequently, Group D had significantly lower HR and SBP at the time of extubation and at 3 and 6 min later. MAP at extubation and at 3 min later was comparable, but at 6 min, Group D had significantly lower values. In both groups, patient reactivity scores, ease of laryngoscopy, and vocal cord visibility were comparable (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg when used as an adjunct clinically improved conditions for assessing vocal cord mobility with significant attenuation of associated hemodynamic responses. 


A prospective study of comparison of analgesic efficacy of dexamethasone as an adjuvant in supraclavicular block with intravenous dexamethasone after supraclavicular block in patients undergoing forearm surgeries
Madhavi Rahul Godbole, Seema Shreepad Karhade, Priya P Parihar

Anesthesia: Essays and Researches 2019 13(1):31-35

Context: Brachial plexus block is a preferred anesthesia technique for upper limb surgeries below the shoulder joint. Drugs used as adjuvants in block enhance the postoperative analgesia significantly. Aim: We aimed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy, of perineural dexamethasone used as an adjuvant to supraclavicular block as against systemic dexamethasone after supraclavicular block. Time for rescue analgesia was also noted in both groups. Subjects and Methods: In our randomized study, 60 patients belonging to the American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status Classes I and II were randomly allocated in two groups of thirty. Group BD received supraclavicular block with local anesthetic and dexamethasone 0.05 mg/kg as an adjuvant. Group BI received supraclavicular block with local anesthetic and intravenous (IV) dexamethasone 0.05 mg/kg after the block. In both groups, the comparison of postoperative analgesia and time for first rescue analgesic was noted. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0. Demographic data and continuous variables were analyzed by independent sample t-test. Categorical data were analyzed by unpaired t-test. Results: Group BD showed significantly prolonged postoperative analgesia as compared to Group BI. Time for rescue analgesic in Group BD was (15.8 ± 2.6) H as compared to Group BI (10.3 ± 1.07) H. Conclusions: Dexamethasone, when used in supraclavicular block significantly, prolongs the duration of analgesia as against IV dexamethasone after supraclavicular block. 


A prospective crossover study evaluating the efficacy of king vision video laryngoscope in patients requiring general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation
Ramachandra R Avula, Nagendra Nath Vemuri, Rambabu Tallapragada

Anesthesia: Essays and Researches 2019 13(1):36-39

Background: Direct laryngoscopy used for tracheal intubation requires aligning the pharyngeal, laryngeal and oral axes to achieve a line of sight. Video laryngoscopy provides a better view of the glottis without the need for aligning the three axes. Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of King vision laryngoscope over Macintosh laryngoscope in visualizing the glottis and intubating the trachea, when used on a same patient as in a cross over manner. Settings and Design: Department of Anaesthesia, Mediciti Institute of Medical Sciences, prospective crossover study conducted over a period of six months. Subjects and Methods: Sixty adult patients belonging to ASA physical status class I-II, requiring tracheal intubation were randomly assigned to intubation by King vision or Macintosh laryngoscope. Improvement, if any, in the Cormack-Lehane grading using the King vision scope, following initial grading with the Macintosh blade in the same patient was analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Mean and Standard deviation were calculated for different parameters under the study. Where appropriate, results were analyzed using the Mc Nemar χ2 test. A ‘p’ value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In the King Vision group, Cormack and Lehane grade improved in the majority (9/12) of patients in whom the initial Cormack and Lehane grade was >1 using the Macintosh blade. Conclusions: The use of the King vision blade significantly improved the laryngoscopic view over the Macintosh blade but the time for intubation was prolonged.


A comparative study between the efficacy of fentanyl, antihistamines, and dexmedetomidine in suppressing photic sneeze reflex during peribulbar block
Karim YK Hakim, Mohammed Awad Alsaeid

Anesthesia: Essays and Researches 2019 13(1):40-43

Background: The photic sneeze reflex (autosomal dominant) is a condition that causes sneezing in response to numerous stimuli, such as looking at bright lights or periocular (surrounding the eyeball) injection. Unexpected or sudden sneezing during injection can be a dangerous side effect in periocular injection, in which abrupt head movement may cause globe injury. Aims: We intended to evaluate the efficacy of adding fentanyl, dexmedetomidine, and antihistamines on the incidence of the sneeze reflex associated with propofol sedation during periocular local anesthesia injections. Settings and Design: Our study was a randomized, prospective, double-blinded and controlled clinical study. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted in Ain Shams and Fayoum university hospitals at the ophthalmic surgery department. After obtaining approval from our universities ethical committee and written informed valid consents from the patients, 90 patients were included in this study. The study population included patients of both sex, ASA grade 1 and 2, in the age ranging from 18-65 years. Patients were scheduled for cataract extraction surgeries and received peribulbar block. Then patients were randomly divided into three groups (30 patients each) using a computer- generated table of random numbers. Patients were preoxygenated with supplemental oxygen by nasal cannula, all 90 patients received intravenous propofol 1mg.kg- 1 bolus for sedation and were randomized to receive adjunctive drug 2 to 4 minutes prior to propofol injection: 30 patients received intravenous fentanyl 1 μmg.kg-1 (Group F), 30 patients received dexmedetomidine 1μmg.kg-1 (Group D), and 30 patients received antihistamine (pheniramine 22.75 mg) (Group H). The same local anesthetic admixture, consisting of 5 mL 2% lidocaine with 90 IU hyaluronidase, combined with 5 mL 0.5% plain bupivacaine in a 10-mL syringe at room temperature was administered to all patients using peribulbar block technique. A masked observer (surgeon or anesthesia assistant) recorded whether the patient had a sneezing event. Continuous cardiorespiratory monitoring was performed intraoperatively. Intraoperative and postoperative medication side effects were recorded including bradycardia (HR <55 beats/min), hypotension (MAP <50 mmHg sustained for >10 min), oxygen desaturation (SpO2<90%), nausea, vomiting and prolonged sedation using Ramsay Sedation Score (RSS). Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test and Chi-square test were used for analysis. Results: The demographic data of the three study groups revealed non-significant differences between the three study groups as regards age, sex distribution, and the duration of surgery. No patient was excluded after inclusion to the study. All patients were able to complete the entire study and their data were included in the final analysis. Five events of sneezing had occurred in 90 patients. Two in (D) group and three in (H) group with is no statistically significant difference between the three groups as regard sneezing. Bradycardia, hypotension and sedation had occurred significantly in group (D) compared to group (F) and group (D). No patient suffered from nausea, vomiting or oxygen desaturation in all studied groups. No statistically significant difference as regards patient satisfaction between the three studied groups. Conclusion: Fentanyl, dexmedetomidine and antihistamines with propofol sedation suppress photic sneeze reflex during peribulbar block.


Evaluation of neuromuscular blockade with vecuronium during general anesthesia with oxygen, nitrous oxide, isoflurane versus oxygen, air, isoflurane: A randomized controlled study
Vishanth Boddu, Srinivasan Swaminathan, Hemavathy Balachander, Ranjith Kumar Sivakumar

Anesthesia: Essays and Researches 2019 13(1):44-49

Background: The use of air oxygen mixture with isoflurane has become more common in the place of nitrous oxide, especially in laparoscopic and abdominal surgeries. With a varied mixture of gases and isoflurane used in general anesthesia, the exact dosing requirement and time duration of action have not been precisely studied with vecuronium when given as a bolus, as is given routinely. Purpose: This study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the neuromuscular effect of vecuronium during anesthesia with oxygen, nitrous oxide and isoflurane versus oxygen, air and isoflurane. Methodology: The study was a prospective, randomized controlled trial on 70 patients allocated into two groups as follows: Group N (nitrous oxide group) and Group A (medical air group). The primary objective was to measure and compare the posttetanic count (PTC1) – train of four (TOF1) interval, to evaluate the time taken for recovery from the intense blockade in both groups. The secondary objectives were to compare time duration for twitch height depression to be 30% of baseline after administering vecuronium, time duration from vecuronium administration to appearance of the first PTC1, PTC (n) at the reappearance of the 1st twitch, time interval between TOF1 and TOF3 and time from vecuronium administration to appearance of TOF3 in both the groups. Results: There is no significant difference between both the groups with reference to the block onset time using 30% depression of single twitch and recovery time from neuromuscular blockade using PTC, PTC1-TOF1 and TOF1-TOF3 time intervals. Conclusion: Measuring and comparing neuromuscular transmission monitoring parameters such as the onset time(ST depression to 30%), and recovery using PTC, PTC1-TOF1 and TOF1-TOF3 time intervals, it is concluded that the character of neuromuscular block with vecuronium is unaffected and not prolonged with or without nitrous oxide when used with isoflurane.


Evaluation of ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane block and oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane block in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Randomized, controlled, prospective study
Serkan Tulgar, Mahmut Sertan Kapakli, Halil Cihan Kose, Ozgur Senturk, Onur Selvi, Talat Ercan Serifsoy, David Terence Thomas, Zeliha Ozer

Anesthesia: Essays and Researches 2019 13(1):50-56

Background: Oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane block (OSTAP) is a recently described regional anesthetic technique used in upper abdominal surgeries such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Erector spinae plane block (ESPB) has also been reported for postoperative analgesia in LC. Aim: We aimed to compare the effectiveness of OSTAP and ESPB in providing postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing these surgeries. Setting and Design: This study was designed as a double-blinded, prospective, randomized, efficiency study in a tertiary university hospital, postoperative recovery room, and ward. Materials and Methods: A total of 72 patients were recruited and 60 patients were randomized into three equal groups (ESPB, OSTAP, and control group). Pain intensity between groups was compared using Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) scores. In addition, consumption of paracetamol and tramadol and additional rescue analgesic requirement were measured. Standard multimodal analgesia was performed in all groups, while ESPB block was also performed in Group ESPB and OSTAP block was also performed in group OSTAP. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Independent t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Shapiro–Wilk test, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey's analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results: NRS was lower in block groups during the first 3 h. There was no difference in NRS scores at other hours. Analgesic consumption and rescue analgesic requirement were lower in groups ESPB and OSTAP when compared to those of control group. Block groups were similar. Conclusion: Bilateral ultrasound-guided ESPB and OSTAP performed at the end of LC lead to akin analgesia requirement and improve the quality of multimodal analgesia.


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