Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) is characterized by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and associated with papillary muscle (PM) abnormalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) for the geometric assessment of LV hypertrophy and PM morphology.
The study included 24 patients with an established diagnosis of HC and 31 healthy controls. 3DE was performed using an iE33 or EPIQ 7C ultrasound system with an X5-1 transducer. QLAB software was used for the 3D analysis of LV wall thickness (LVWT) and PM morphology and hypertrophy; the number and cross-sectional area (CSA) of anterolateral and posteromedial PMs; and the presence of bifid or accessory PMs.
Patients with HC had a larger LVWT compared to controls in all segments (p < 0.001), and LVWT was largest in the midventricular septal segment (2.12 ± 0.68 cm). The maximum LVWT followed a spiral pattern from the LV base to the apex. The CSA of both anterolateral and posteromedial PMs was larger in patients with HC than in controls (1.92 vs. 1.15 cm2; p = 0.001 and 1.46 vs. 1.08 cm2; p = 0.033, respectively). The CSA of the posteromedial PM was larger in patients with LVOT obstruction than in those without (2.64 vs 1.16 cm2, p = 0.021).
3DE allows the assessment of LV geometry and PM abnormalities in patients with HC. 3DE demonstrated that the maximum hypertrophy was variable and generally located in a spiral from the LV base to the apex.
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