Tributyltin (TBT) is a biocide extremely toxic to a wide range of organisms, which has been used for decades for industrial purposes. Fucoxanthin is a natural carotenoid that is isolated from seaweed, and fucoxanthinol is a major primary metabolite of fucoxanthin. Although fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol have been reported to possess anti-oxidant activities in vitro, little is known as to whether they protect against TBT-induced oxidative stress in cultured cells. In the present study, the protective effect of fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol against oxidative stress induced by TBT was investigated. The data showed that incubation of HepG2 cells with 0.2 μM TBT significantly increased cell apoptosis, whereas treatment with fucoxanthin or fucoxanthinol (3 μM) significantly recovered cell viability. In addition, fucoxanthinol treatment significantly decreased the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in HepG2 cells incubated with TBT. Moreover, fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol markedly increased the expression level of Bcl-2/Bax. These results demonstrated that both fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol effectively prevented cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells treated with TBT, and the protective effect was likely associated with decreased intracellular ROS and MDA and increased Bcl-2/Bax levels.
from #AlexandrosSfakianakis via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2kBSmzU