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! # Ola via Alexandros G.Sfakianakis on Inoreader

Δευτέρα, 24 Ιουλίου 2017

TGF-{beta}1 regulates the expression and transcriptional activity of TAZ via a Smad3-independent, myocardin-related transcription factor-mediated mechanism [Molecular Bases of Disease]

Hippo pathway transcriptional coactivators TAZ and YAP and the TGF-β1 (TGFβ) effector Smad3 regulate a common set of genes, can physically interact and exhibit multilevel crosstalk regulating cell fate-determining and fibrogenic pathways. However, a key aspect of this crosstalk, TGFβ-mediated regulation of TAZ or YAP expression remains uncharacterized. Here, we show that TGFβ induces robust TAZ but not YAP protein expression in both mesenchymal and epithelial cells. TAZ levels, and to a lesser extent YAP levels, also increased during experimental kidney fibrosis. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of Smad3 did not prevent the TGFβ-induced TAZ upregulation, indicating that this canonical pathway is dispensable. In contrast, inhibition of p38 MAPK, its downstream effector MK2 (e.g. by the clinically approved antifibrotic pirferidone), or Akt suppressed the TGFβ-induced TAZ expression. Moreover, TGFβ elevated TAZ mRNA in a p38-dependent manner. Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF) was a central mediator of this effect, as MRTF silencing/inhibition abolished the TGFβ-induced TAZ expression. MRTF overexpression drove the TAZ promoter in a CArG box-dependent manner and induced TAZ protein expression. TGFβ did not act by promoting nuclear MRTF translocation; instead, it triggered p38- and MK2-mediated, Nox4-promoted MRTF phosphorylation and activation. Functionally, higher TAZ levels increased TAZ/TEAD-dependent transcription and primed cells for enhanced TAZ activity upon a second stimulus (i.e. sphingosine-1-phosphate) that induced nuclear TAZ translocation. In conclusion, our results uncover an important aspect of the crosstalk between TGFβ and Hippo signaling, showing that TGFβ induces TAZ via a Smad3-independent, p38- and MRTF-mediated, yet MRTF translocation-independent mechanism.

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