Bariatric surgery, incretin-based therapy (glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues), and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have antidiabetic properties in morbidly obese patients. However, their comparative efficacy in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in class I obese patients specifically in Indian has not been studied yet. This study evaluates and compares the efficacy and side effect of surgical and advanced medical management of T2DM in class I obese patients.
T2DM patients with body mass index ranging from 30 to 35 kg/m2 and with a median duration of 3 years and HbA1c level >7.5% were recruited for the study. Selection of treatment option that is bariatric surgery, GLP-1 analogues and SGLT2 inhibitor, was kept on patient's choice. Each group had 30 patients after 12 months of follow-up. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, and lipid profile levels were assessed at baseline and after 12 months of follow-up.
There was statistically significant lowering of HbA1c and FPG after 12 months in all the three groups. However, this lowering was clinically insignificant in GLP-1 and SGLT2 groups. There was also improvement in lipid profile values in all the three groups with significantly higher percentage change in bariatric surgery group when compared to other modalities.
Bariatric surgery is a safe and effective procedure to treat T2DM in class I obese patients. It is also superior to advance medical treatment modalities such as GLP-1 analogues and SGLT2 inhibitors.