Colorectal surgeries (CRS) have one of the highest rates of surgical site infections (SSIs) with rates 15 to >30%. Prevention "bundles" or sets of evidence-based interventions are structured ways to improve patient outcomes. The aim sof this study is to evaluate CRS SSI prevention bundles, bundle components, and implementation and compliance strategies.
A meta-analysis of studies with pre- and post-implementation data was conducted to assess the impact of bundles on SSI rates (superficial, deep, and organ/space). Subgroup analysis of bundle components identified optimal bundle designs.
Thirty-five studies (51,413 patients) were identified and 23 (17,557 patients) were included in the meta-analysis. A SSI risk reduction of 40% (p < 0.001) was noted with 44% for superficial SSI (p < 0.001) and 34% for organ/space (p = 0.048). Bundles with sterile closure trays (58.6 vs 33.1%), MBP with oral antibiotics (55.4 vs 31.8%), and pre-closure glove changes (56.9 vs 28.5%) had significantly greater SSI risk reduction.
Bundles can effectively reduce the risk of SSIs after CRS, by fostering a cohesive environment, standardization, and reduction in operative variance. If implemented successfully and complied with, bundles can become vital to improving patients' surgical quality of care.