Neutropenic enterocolitis (NEC) is an abdominal infection reported primarily in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) following chemotherapy, especially cytarabine, a notable efficacious cytotoxic agent for AML remission. Specific data regarding the impact of different cytarabine schedules and/or antibacterial regimens for NEC are sparse. The aim of the study was to identify the predictors of outcome within 30 days of NEC onset. NEC episodes were retrospectively pinpointed among 440 patients with newly diagnosed AML hospitalized in our Institution, over a 10-year period, for receiving chemotherapy protocols with 100–6000 mg/m2 daily of cytarabine. Two subgroups, survivors versus nonsurvivors, were compared by using logistic regression analysis. NEC was documented in 100 of 420 (23.8%) analyzed patients: 42.5% had received high-dose cytarabine, whereas 19% and 15% intermediate-dose and standard-dose cytarabine, respectively (P < 0.001). The 30-day NEC attributable mortality rate was 23%. In univariate analysis, antileukemic protocols containing robust dosages of cytarabine were significantly associated with high mortality (P < 0.001); whereas, standard-dose cytarabine and prompt initiation (at the ultrasonographic appearance of intestinal mural thickening) of NEC therapy with antibiotic combinations including tigecycline were significantly associated with low mortality. In multivariate analysis, high-dose cytarabine-containing chemotherapy was the independent predictor of poor outcome (odds ratio [OR]: 0.109; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.032–0.364; P < 0.001), whereas ultrasonography-driven NEC therapy with antibiotic regimens including tigecycline was associated with a favorable outcome (OR: 13.161; 95% CI: 1.587–109.17; P = 0.017). Chemotherapy schedules with robust dosages of cytarabine for AML remission are associated with a high rate of NEC incidence and attributable. Vigorous antibacterial therapy, triggered off pathologic ultrasonographic findings, with drug combinations which have broad antimicrobial coverage and good gut penetration, specifically those also including tigecycline, may be effective in improving 30-day survival rate after NEC onset.
Prompt ultrasonography-driven combination antibiotic therapy for NEC improved survival among acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient. Chemotherapy schedules with robust dosages of cytarabine for AML remission are associated with a high rate of NEC incidence and attributable mortality. Vigorous antibacterial therapy, specifically those also including tigecycline, may be effective in improving 30-day survival rate after NEC onset. This text corresponds to the final part of the abstract and it doesn't represent the legend to this figure.
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