Background: Previous studies have evaluated the effect of medical diagnostic radiation on brain tumors. Recent cohort studies have reported an increased risk associated with exposure to head CT scans.
Methods: Information regarding medical conditions, including prenatal and postnatal exposure to medical diagnostic radiation, was obtained from CEFALO, a multicenter case–control study performed in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland through face-to-face interview. Eligible cases of childhood and adolescent brain tumors (CABT) were ages 7 to 19 years, diagnosed between January 1, 2004 and August 31, 2008, and living in the participating countries (n = 352). The cases were matched by age, sex, and region to 646 population-based controls.
Results: Prenatal exposure to medical diagnostic radiation and postnatal exposure to X-rays were not associated with CABTs. A higher risk estimate of CABTs, although not statistically significant, was found for exposure to head CT scan (OR, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.82–4.22). The associations with head injury, febrile seizure, fever in the first 12 weeks, and general anesthesia were close to unity.
Conclusions: Prenatal or postnatal medical conditions, including medical diagnostic radiation, were not associated with CABTs. On the basis of small numbers of exposed children, we observed a nonsignificant increased risk for CT scans of the head.
Impact: We have presented additional evidence, suggesting that exposure to head CT scan may be associated with the occurrence of CABTs. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(1); 110–5. ©2016 AACR.
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